The Effects of Civilisation on the People in European States
EFFECTS OF CIVILISATION
ON THE PEOPLE
CHARLES HALL, M.D.
Originally Printed 1805.
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.
London: Printed by Petter, Duff, and Co.
Crane Court, Fleet Street
The following Work, remarkable for its vivid description of the general condition of the people throughout Europe at the period of its publication, has lost none of its interest now, when many of our social evils have been greatly aggravated and extended, although some have been alleviated or removed. Machinery—which, in a rightly constituted society, based upon Christian principles, would prove invariably a blessing—has, under the present system, increased the struggles and intensity of competition, and depressed, by overwhelming, the labour market—producing the two extremes of super-abundance and destitution.
The title of the work has not been happily chosen, implying, as it does, that the effects described are the necessary consequences of civilisation; whereas, they can be regarded only as the result of an imperfect state of civilisation in the progress of society.
The persons who may be disposed to criticise this work, will have an advantage, which no doubt will be made use of. Some of the opinions maintained in it being contrary to the more generally received notions, it was necessary to treat the subject in a somewhat elementary manner, beginning with the more simple matters, and such as were less contrary to the common ways of thinking, and proceeding to others more complex and more opposite to popular ideas. On which account, the chapters in the advanced part of the discourse, if detached from their places and exposed to view by themselves, without the preceding facts and reasons on which they are grounded, may appear paradoxical and untrue. The author, therefore, makes use of the right he has to put in his caveat against that mode of proceeding.
On Manufactures, Trade, and Commerce
Why Manufactures and Commerce have been encouraged by States
The Increase of Wealth and Power of the Few, and Poverty of the Many
Whether the Rich are useful to the Poor
On the different Interests of the Rich and Poor
What part of the Produce of his own Labour is made use of by the Labourer
The State of the Poor not necessarily such as it is
On the Effects of Civilisation on the other Orders
Manufactures the Cause and Sign of the Poverty of Nations
Civilisation and Manufactures render a Nation more ignorant and barbarous
Civilisation and Manufactures weaken a Nation
That the Poor contribute most to most Governments
The Cause of the Frequency of Wars
On National Debts
On Privileged Orders, as established in most Civilised States
On National Revenues
The Method proposed for the Removal of the Evils complained of
The Cause of the different Opinions on this Subject
That the Facts set forth in this Work, and the Causes of them, are not generally known
On the Means of lessening a Scarcity, when existing
Whether the Cultivation of Commons in England would prevent Scarcity there
On the rising Aristocracy of the American States
Whether the inducing and keeping up a more equal State of Property is practicable
That the Produce of Land is in Proportion to the Labour bestowed on it