Ii-electrons

Ielectron yintwana nje yento ntwana encinane ye-matter ne-energy. uphawu lwayo yi-e.

I-electron iphuma kw-i-subatomic particle. Kukholelwa okokuba yielementary particle kuba ayinakuhlahleleka okanye ayinakucukucezeka ibe yiyo nantonina encinane ngaphezu kokuba ingako. [1] |Itshajwa ngophawu olu-negative ngokozibuthe,[2] kwaye intshukumo yazo phantse ibesisantya sokuqhwanyaza kombane.[3]

Ii-Electrons zithabatha inxaxheba kwi-gravitational, i-electromagnetic nakwiweak interactions.[4] I-electricity enika amandla ee-radios, ee-moto, nezinye izinto ezininzi zenziwe ngee-electrons ezininzi nezihamba ngeengcingo okanye ngezinye iizinto ahamba ngazo amandla ombane zinto ezo kuthiwa zii-conductors.

Inkcazo

[[File:Bohr atom model English.svg|right|thumb|Imodel i- Niels Bohr model ye-atom. Amaqweqwe amathathu e-electron ange-nucleus, ane-electron ehamba isuka kwinqanaba lesibini nelokuqala ihamba ikhiqiza ii- photon. Ii-Electrons zine tshaji yombane encinane kuzo zonke. Le tshaji yombane ilingana netshaji ye- proton, kodwa yona eye-electon inophawu oluchaseneyo nolweproton. ngenxa yoko, ii-electrons zibanombizelane kw-iiprotons ze-atomic atoms ezikwii-nuclei zitsho zenze ii-atoms. i-electron inobunzima bayo obuphindaphindwe ka-1/1836 kunobo be-proton.[5] Inye indlela ongacinga ngayo malunga nokkokuba zifumaneka phi na ii-electrons kwi-atom kukuba zijikeleza ndawoninye ukusuka kw inucleus. ngale ndlela, ii-electrons ezikwi-atom zihlala ku- kumaqokobhe e-electrons ajikeleze umphakathi kwisizikithi se- nucleus. Iqokobhe le-electron ngalinye linikwa inombolo ethi 1, 2, 3, njalo, njalo, ukusuka kuleyo ifufutshane kunazo zonke kwi-nucleus (kanye kumphakathi wesikhumba esiliqokobhe). Iqokobhe ngalinye lingagcina inani elithile lee-electrons. Isenzo sokwa biwakwee-electrons zisabelwa kumaqokobhe-ngamaqokobhe kuthiwa kwenziwa i-electronic arrangement (okanye luhlobo emile ngayo i-electronic). Ukucwangciswa kwe-electronic kungaboniswa ngokuthi inonjolwe ngamanani okanye nge electron diagram. (indlela eyahlukileyo yokucinga ngendawo ezifumaneka kuyo ii-electrons kukusebenzisa ii-quantum mechanics ukuze kubalwe ii-atomic orbitals zazo)

I-electron yenye is one of a class of subatomic particles called leptons. The electron has a negative electric charge. The electron has another property, called spin. Its spin value is 1/2, which makes it a fermion.

While most electrons are found in atoms, others move independently in matter, or together as cathode rays in a vacuum. In some superconductors, electrons move in pairs. When electrons flow, this flow is called electricity, or an electric current.

An object can be described as 'negatively charged' if there are more electrons than protons in an object, or 'positively charged' when there are more protons than electrons. Electrons can move from one object to another when touched. They may be attracted to another object with opposite charge, or repelled when they both have the same charge. When an object is 'grounded', electrons from the charged object go into the ground, making the object neutral. This is what lightning conductors do.

Chemical reactions

Electrons in their shells round an atom are the basis of chemical reactions. Complete outer shells, with maximum electrons, are less reactive. Outer shells with less than maximum electrons are reactive. The number of electrons in atoms is the underlying basis of the chemical periodic table.[6]

Measurement

Electric charge can be directly measured with a device called an electrometer. Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer. The measurement given off by a galvanometer is different from the measurement given off by an electrometer. Today laboratory instruments are capable of containing and observing individual electrons.

'Seeing' an electron

In laboratory conditions, the interactions of individual electrons can be observed by means of particle detectors, which allow measurement of specific properties such as energy, spin and charge.[7] In one instance a Penning trap was used to contain a single electron for 10 months.[8] The magnetic moment of the electron was measured to a precision of eleven digits, which, in 1980, was a greater accuracy than for any other physical constant.[9]

The first video images of an electron's energy distribution were captured by a team at Lund University in Sweden, February 2008. The scientists used extremely short flashes of light, called attosecond pulses, which allowed an electron's motion to be observed for the first time.[10][11] The distribution of the electrons in solid materials can also be visualized.[12]

Anti-particle

The antiparticle of the electron is called a positron. This is identical to the electron, but carries electrical and other charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, they may scatter off each other or be totally annihilated, producing a pair (or more) of gamma ray photons.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Elektron
Alemannisch: Elektron
aragonés: Electrón
العربية: إلكترون
অসমীয়া: ইলেকট্ৰন
asturianu: Electrón
azərbaycanca: Elektron
تۆرکجه: الکترون
башҡортса: Электрон
Boarisch: Elektron
žemaitėška: Alektruons
беларуская: Электрон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Электрон
български: Електрон
বাংলা: ইলেকট্রন
brezhoneg: Elektron
bosanski: Elektron
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Elektron
català: Electró
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Diêng-cṳ̄
کوردی: ئێلێکترۆن
čeština: Elektron
Чӑвашла: Электрон
Cymraeg: Electron
dansk: Elektron
Deutsch: Elektron
Ελληνικά: Ηλεκτρόνιο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Eletròun
English: Electron
Esperanto: Elektrono
español: Electrón
eesti: Elektron
euskara: Elektroi
فارسی: الکترون
suomi: Elektroni
Võro: Elektron
føroyskt: Elektron
français: Électron
Nordfriisk: Elektron
Frysk: Elektron
Gaeilge: Leictreon
galego: Electrón
ગુજરાતી: ઈલેક્ટ્રોન
עברית: אלקטרון
हिन्दी: इलेक्ट्रॉन
Fiji Hindi: Electron
hrvatski: Elektron
Kreyòl ayisyen: Elektwon
magyar: Elektron
Հայերեն: Էլեկտրոն
interlingua: Electron
Bahasa Indonesia: Elektron
Ilokano: Elektron
íslenska: Rafeind
italiano: Elettrone
日本語: 電子
Patois: Ilekchran
la .lojban.: dutydikca kantu
Basa Jawa: Èlèktron
ქართული: ელექტრონი
қазақша: Электрон
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អេឡិចត្រុង
한국어: 전자
Ripoarisch: Elektron
kurdî: Kareva
Кыргызча: Электрон
Latina: Electron
Lëtzebuergesch: Elektron
Lingua Franca Nova: Eletron
Limburgs: Elektron
Ligure: Elettron
lumbaart: Elettron
lingála: Eléktron
lietuvių: Elektronas
latviešu: Elektrons
македонски: Електрон
മലയാളം: ഇലക്ട്രോൺ
монгол: Электрон
मराठी: विजाणू
Bahasa Melayu: Elektron
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီလက်ထရွန်
Plattdüütsch: Elektron
नेपाली: इलेक्ट्रोन
नेपाल भाषा: इलेक्ट्रोन
Nederlands: Elektron
norsk nynorsk: Elektron
norsk: Elektron
Novial: Elektrone
occitan: Electron
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਿਜਲਾਣੂ
polski: Elektron
Piemontèis: Eletron
پنجابی: الیکٹران
português: Elétron
Runa Simi: Iliktrun
română: Electron
русский: Электрон
русиньскый: Електрон
संस्कृतम्: विद्युदणुः
sicilianu: Elettrùni
Scots: Electron
سنڌي: برقيو
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Elektron
Simple English: Electron
slovenčina: Elektrón
slovenščina: Elektron
Soomaaliga: Elektaroon
shqip: Elektroni
српски / srpski: Електрон
Seeltersk: Elektron
Basa Sunda: Éléktron
svenska: Elektron
Kiswahili: Elektroni
తెలుగు: ఎలక్ట్రాన్
Tagalog: Elektron
Türkçe: Elektron
татарча/tatarça: Электрон
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئېلېكترون
українська: Електрон
اردو: برقیہ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Elektron
vèneto: Ełetron
vepsän kel’: Elektron
Tiếng Việt: Electron
Winaray: Electron
Wolof: Mbëjfepp
吴语: 电子
хальмг: Электрон
ייִדיש: עלעקטראן
中文: 电子
文言: 電子
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiān-chú
粵語: 電子