New Horizons

New Horizons koʻrinishi.
New Horizons tomonidan olingan Pluton va uning yoʻldoshlaridan biri Xaron surati, 2015-yil 11-iyul.

New Horizons (talaffuzi: nyu horayzns, inglizchadan tarjimasi: Yangi Ufqlar) NASA New Frontiers dasturi doirasida 2006-yil 19-yanvarda uchirgan fazoviy zonddir. Alan Stern boshchiligida Amaliy fizika laboratoriyasi va Janubi-gʻarbiy tadqiqot instituti tomonidan qurilgan bu zond Pluton, uning yoʻldoshlari va Kuiper kamarini oʻrganish uchun uchirilgan.[1][2][3][4]

New Horizons ustida ish 1990-yilda Alan Stern va Fran Bagenal tomonidan Pluto 350 loyihasi bilan boshlanib, 1992-yilda Reaktiv dvigatellar laboratoriyasida davom etdi; bunga qisman Pluton haqida Qoʻshma Shtatlar Pochta Xizmati chiqargan va ustida "Hanuz tadqiq etilmagan" yozuvli marka turtki boʻlgan edi. Biroq mablagʻ va dastak kamligi sabab 2000-yilda loyiha bekor qilindi.

Biroq loyiha NASA'ning Quyosh tizimini oʻrganish uchun ochgan Flagship dasturi moliyalanish dasturiga kiritilib, zond qurish va sinash ishlari boshlandi, bu jarayon uch yil vaqt oldi va nihoyat 2006-yil 19-yanvarida Kanaveraldan ikkinchi kosmik tezlikda (16,26 km/s) uchirildi va Yerdan uchirilgan eng tez jism boʻldi.

132524 APL asteroidi bilan uchrashgach, New Horizons Yupiter tomonga uchdi, va 2007-yil 28-fevralida unga 2,3 mln km masofagacha yaqinlashdi. Zond Yupiter atmosferasi, yoʻldoshlari va magnetosferasi haqida maʼlumot yigʻib, sayyora yordamida gravitatsion manyovr qildi, bu turtki zondga qoʻshimcha 4 km/s tezlik berdi. Bundan soʻng zond bortidagi uskunalar energiya tejash maqsadida vaqtincha oʻchirildi.[5] On December 6, 2014, New Horizons was brought back online for the encounter, and instrument check-out began.[6] 2015-yil 15-yanvarida New Horizons Plutonga yaqinlashish fazasini boshladi. 2015-yil 14-iyulida zond Pluton sathidan 12 600 km masofada uchib oʻtib,[7][8] Plutonni tadqiq etgan birinchi fazo apparati boʻldi.[4] NASA zonddan muhandislik va boshqa maʼlumotlar olib, loyihani har tomonlama muvaffaqiyatli, deb eʼlon qildi.[9][10][11]

Manbalar

  1. New Horizons to Pluto, Mission Website. US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (2 July 2015). 7 July 2015.
  2. Chang, Kenneth (July 13, 2015). "A Close-Up for Pluto After Spacecraft’s 3-Billion-MileTrip". http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/14/science/a-close-up-for-pluto-after-spacecrafts-3-billion-mile-trip.html. Qaraldi: July 13, 2015. 
  3. Chang, Kenneth (July 6, 2015). "Almost Time for Pluto’s Close-Up". http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/science/space/almost-time-for-plutos-close-up.html. Qaraldi: July 6, 2015. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 "Reaching Pluto, and the End of an Era of Planetary Exploration". http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/science/space/reaching-pluto-and-the-end-of-an-era-of-planetary-exploration.html. Qaraldi: July 7, 2015.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NYT-20150706-db" defined multiple times with different content
  5. New Horizons: NASA's Mission to Pluto. NASA. April 15, 2015.
  6. New Horizons - News. Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (December 6, 2014). April 15, 2015.
  7. Chang, Kenneth (July 14, 2015). "NASA’s New Horizons Spacecraft Completes Flyby of Pluto". http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/15/science/space/nasa-new-horizons-spacecraft-reaches-pluto.html. Qaraldi: July 14, 2015. 
  8. Dunn, Marcia (14 July 2015). "Pluto close-up: Spacecraft makes flyby of icy, mystery world". http://apnews.excite.com/article/20150714/us-sci--pluto-1a20f848e7.html. Qaraldi: 14 July 2015. 
  9. Staff (14 July 2015). NASA News Briefing on New Horizons 09:30 pm - 10:30 pm; 07/14/2015. NASA. 14 July 2015.
  10. Staff (14 July 2015). NewHorizons “phoned home" & is healthy!. Twitter @NASA. 14 July 2015.
  11. Chang, Kenneth (14 July 2015). "NASA’s New Horizons Spacecraft Sends Signal From Pluto to Earth". http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/15/science/space/nasa-new-horizons-spacecraft-reaches-pluto.html. Qaraldi: 14 July 2015. 
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