Wang Mang | references

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Early Chinese dynasties were typically named after the fief of their founding dynast, and this reading is consistent with Wang Mang's pre-imperial position as Marquess of Xin. In 1950, C.B. Sargent suggested that the name of the dynasty should be read as meaning "new", which J.J.L. Duyvendak rejected out of hand. Chauncey S. Goodrich later convincingly argued that it may be possible to assign a semantic reading to xin, but that it ought to be read as renewed or renewal, not simply new. See Goodrich, Chauncey S. (July 1957). "The Reign of Wang Mang: Hsin or New?". Oriens. Leiden: Brill. 10 (1): 114–8. doi:10.2307/1578760. 
  2. ^ a b Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN  978-0-231-11004-4. 
  3. ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN  978-0-231-11004-4. 
  4. ^ Hallet, Nicole. "China and Antislavery". Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, Vol. 1, p. 154 – 156. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 0-313-33143-X.
  5. ^ Taskin V.S. 1984. "Materials on history of Dunhu group nomadic tribes", p.15, Moscow, Science)
  6. ^ Dash, Mike (December 9, 2011). "Emperor Wang Mang: China's First Socialist". Past Imperfect blog. Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 

Works cited

  • Steven S. Drachman, "The Ghosts of Watt O'Hugh", Chickadee Prince Books, 2011. ISBN 978-0-578-08590-6.
  • Loewe, Michael. "Wang Mang 王莽 (2)". A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods (221 BC – AD 24). Leiden: Brill. pp. 536–45. 
  • Rudi Thomsen, Ambition and confucianism : a biography of Wang Mang, Aarhus University Press, 1988. ISBN 87-7288-155-0.
  • Yap, Joseph P. "Wars With The Xiongnu, A Translation From Zizhi tongjian" Chapters 13–17, AuthorHouse (2009) ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4
Emperor of the Xin Dynasty
Born: 45 BC Died: 6 October 23
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Ruzi of Han
Emperor of China
Xin Dynasty
9–23
Succeeded by
Emperor Gengshi of Han