^Early Chinese dynasties were typically named after the fief of their founding dynast, and this reading is consistent with Wang Mang's pre-imperial position as Marquess of Xin. In 1950, C.B. Sargent suggested that the name of the dynasty should be read as meaning "new", which J.J.L. Duyvendak rejected out of hand. Chauncey S. Goodrich later convincingly argued that it may be possible to assign a semantic reading to xin, but that it ought to be read as renewed or renewal, not simply new. See Goodrich, Chauncey S. (July 1957). "The Reign of Wang Mang: Hsin or New?". Oriens. Leiden: Brill. 10 (1): 114–8. 10.2307/1578760.
^ abRobert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN978-0-231-11004-4.
^Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN978-0-231-11004-4.