Union (American Civil War) | bibliography



  • Cashin, Joan E. ed. The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War (2001),
  • Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd ed. 2007), 544 page university textbook
  • Flaherty, Jane. "'The Exhausted Condition of the Treasury' on the Eve of the Civil War," Civil War History, Volume 55, Number 2, June 2009, pp. 244–277 in Project MUSE
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. (2005). 518 pp. 23 essays by scholars excerpt and text search
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. The North Fights the Civil War: The Home Front (1994), survey
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. Northerners at War: Reflections on the Civil War Home Front (2010), essays on specialized issues
  • Heidler, David and Jeanne Heidler, eds, Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002) 2740pp
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 page survey; Pulitzer prize
  • Nevins, Allan. War for the Union, an 8-volume set (1947–1971). the most detailed political, economic and military narrative; by Pulitzer Prize winner; vol 1–4 cover 1848–61; vol 5. The Improvised War, 1861–1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863–1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865
  • Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005)


  • Bogue, Allan G. The Congressman's Civil War (1989)
  • Carman, Harry J. and Reinhard H. Luthin. Lincoln and the Patronage (1943), details on each state
  • Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln (1999) the best biography; excerpt and text search
  • Engle, Stephen D. Gathering to Save a Nation: Lincoln and the Union's War Governors (u of North Carolina Press, 2016). 725 pp.
  • Fish, Carl Russell. "Lincoln and the Patronage," American Historical Review (1902) 8#1 pp. 53–69 in JSTOR
  • Gallagher, Gary W. The Union War (2011), emphasizes that the North fought primarily for nationalism and preservation of the Union
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005) excerpts and text search, on Lincoln's cabinet
  • Green, Michael S. Freedom, Union, and Power: Lincoln and His Party during the Civil War. (2004). 400 pp.
  • Harris, William C. Lincoln and the Union Governors (Southern Illinois University Press, 2013) 162 pp.
  • Hesseltine, William B. Lincoln and the War Governors (1948)
  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (1979), statistical study of voting patterns.
  • Lawson, Melinda. Patriot Fires: Forging a New American Nationalism in the Civil War North (University Press of Kansas, 2002).
  • Luthin, Reinhard H. The first Lincoln campaign (1944) on election of 1860
  • Neely, Mark. The Divided Union: Party Conflict in the Civil War North (2002)
  • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
  • Rawley, James A. The Politics of Union: Northern Politics during the Civil War (1974).
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997) online edition
  • Silbey, Joel. A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era (1977).
  • Smith, Adam I. P. No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North (Oxford University Press, 2006)
  • Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011) online review
  • Weber, Jennifer L. Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln's Opponents in the North (2006) excerpt and text search

Constitutional and legal

  • Hyman Harold. "A More Perfect Union ": The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Constitution (1973)
  • Neely; Mark E., Jr. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1991).
  • Neely, Jr., Mark E. Lincoln and the Triumph of the Nation: Constitutional Conflict in the American Civil War (U of North Carolina Press; 2011); 408 covers the U.S. and the Confederate constitutions and their role in the conflict.
  • Paludan, Phillip S. "The American Civil War Considered as a Crisis in Law and Order," American Historical Review, Vol. 77, No. 4 (October 1972), pp. 1013–1034 in JSTOR


  • Brandes, Stuart. Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America (1997), pp 67–88; a scholarly history of the munitions industry; concludes profits were not excessive
  • Clark, Jr., John E. Railroads in the Civil War: The Impact of Management on Victory and Defeat (2004)
  • Cotterill, R. S. "The Louisville and Nashville Railroad 1861–1865," American Historical Review (1924) 29#4 pp. 700–715 in JSTOR
  • Fite, Emerson David. Social and industrial conditions in the North during the Civil War (1910) online edition, old but still quite useful
  • Hammond, Bray. "The North's Empty Purse, 1861–1862," American Historical Review, October 1961, Vol. 67 Issue 1, pp 1–18 in JSTOR
  • Hill, Joseph A. "The Civil War Income Tax," Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1894), pp. 416–452 in JSTOR; appendix in JSTOR
  • Merk, Frederick. Economic history of Wisconsin during the Civil War decade (1916) online edition
  • Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011) details on Treasury Department, government contracting, and the cotton trade
  • Weber, Thomas. The northern railroads in the Civil War, 1861–1865 (1999)
  • Wilson, Mark R. The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861–1865. (2006). 306 pp. excerpt and text search

Intellectual and cultural

  • Aaron, Daniel. The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War (2nd ed. 1987)
  • Brownlee, Peter John et al. eds. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North (2013) online review
  • Foote, Lorien and Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai. So Conceived and So Dedicated: Intellectual Life in the Civil War Era North (2015)
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. Defining Duty in the Civil War: Personal Choice, Popular Culture, and the Union Home Front (2015) how civilians defined their roles. online review
  • Fredrickson, George M. The inner Civil War: Northern intellectuals and the crisis of the Union (1993)
  • Stevenson, Louise A. The Victorian Homefront: American Thought and Culture, 1860–1880 (1991).
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962)


  • Adams, George Worthington. Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (1996), 253pp; excerpt and text search
  • Clarke, Frances M. War Stories: Suffering and Sacrifice in the Civil War North (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Grant, S-M. "'Mortal in this season': Union Surgeons and the Narrative of Medical Modernisation in the American Civil War." Social History of Medicine (2014): hku010.
  • Maxwell, William Quentin. Lincoln's Fifth Wheel: The Political History of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (1956) online edition
  • Schroeder-Lein, Glenna R. The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine (2012) excerpt and text search. 456pp


  • McPherson, James M. Marching Toward Freedom: The Negro's Civil War (1982); first edition was The Negro's Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union (1965),
  • Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil War (1953), standard history excerpt and text search
  • Voegeli, V. Jacque. Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro during the Civil War (1967).

Religion and ethnicity

  • Brodrecht, Grant R. "Our Country: Northern Evangelicals and the Union during the Civil War and Reconstruction." Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame, 2008.
  • Burton, William L. Melting Pot Soldiers: The Union Ethnic Regiments (1998)
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the Ethnocultural Thesis." Civil War History 37 (1991): 232–246.
  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (1979).
  • Miller, Randall M., Harry S. Stout and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds. Religion and the American Civil War (1998) online edition
  • Miller, Robert J. Both Prayed to the Same God: Religion and Faith in the American Civil War. (2007). 260pp
  • Moorhead, James. American Apocalypse: Yankee Protestants and the Civil War, 1860–1869 (1978).
  • Noll, Mark A. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. (2006). 199 pp.
  • Stout, Harry S. Upon the Altar of the Nation: A Moral History of the Civil War. (2006). 544 pp.

Social and demographic history

  • Brownlee, Peter John, et al. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North (University of Chicago Press, 2013) 193 pp. heavily illustrated.
  • Morehouse, Maggi M. and Zoe Trodd, eds. Civil War America: A Social and Cultural History with Primary Sources (2013), 29 short essays by scholars excerpt
  • Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community at War (2011) about Cortland New York
  • Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. Toward a Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays (1991), new social history; quantitative studies
  • Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. "Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War? Some Preliminary Demographic Speculations," Journal of American History Vol. 76, No. 1 (June 1989), pp. 34–58 in JSTOR
  • Veit, Helen Zoe, ed. Food in the Civil War Era: The North (Michigan State University Press, 2014)


  • Geary James W. We Need Men: The Union Draft in the Civil War (1991).
  • Geary James W. "Civil War Conscription in the North: A Historiographical Review." Civil War History 32 (September 1986): 208–228.
  • Hams, Emily J. "Sons and Soldiers: Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the Civil War," Civil War History 30 (June 1984): 157–71
  • Hess, Earl J. "The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment," Missouri Historical Review 76 (October 1981): 53–77.
  • Cimbala, Paul A. and Randall M. Miller, eds. Union Soldiers and the Northern Home Front: Wartime Experiences, Postwar Adjustments. (2002)
  • Current, Richard N. (1994). Lincoln's Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508465-9.
  • McPherson, James. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998), based on letters and diaries
  • Miller, William J. Training of an Army: Camp Curtin and the North's Civil War (1990)
  • Mitchell; Reid. The Vacant Chair. The Northern Soldier Leaves Home (1993).
  • Rorabaugh, William J. "Who Fought for the North in the Civil War? Concord, Massachusetts, Enlistments," Journal of American History 73 (December 1986): 695–701 in JSTOR
  • Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era, 1850–1873 (1944), Ohio
  • Scott, Sean A. "'Earth Has No Sorrow That Heaven Cannot Cure': Northern Civilian Perspectives on Death and Eternity during the Civil War," Journal of Social History (2008) 41:843–866
  • Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952)

State and local

  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. American Civil War: A State-by-State Encyclopedia (2 vol 2015) 1019pp excerpt
  • Aley, Ginette et al. eds. Union Heartland: The Midwestern Home Front during the Civil War (2013)
  • Bak, Richard. A Distant Thunder: Michigan in the Civil War. (2004). 239 pp.
  • Baker, Jean H. The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870 (1973)
  • Baum, Dale. The Civil War Party System: The Case of Massachusetts, 1848–1876 (1984)
  • Bradley, Erwin S. The Triumph of Militant Republicanism: A Study of Pennsylvania and Presidential Politics, 1860–1872 (1964)
  • Castel, Albert. A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861–1865 (1958)
  • Cole, Arthur Charles. The Era of the Civil War 1848–1870 (1919) on Illinois
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky (1926),
  • Current, Richard N. The History of Wisconsin: The Civil War Era, 1848–1873 (1976).
  • Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's war: the Civil War in documents (2006), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Dilla, Harriette M. Politics of Michigan, 1865–1878 (Columbia University Press, 1912) online at Google books
  • Gallman, Matthew J. Mastering Wartime: A Social History of Philadelphia During the Civil War. (1990)
  • Hall, Susan G. Appalachian Ohio and the Civil War, 1862–1863 (2008)
  • Holzer, Harold. State of the Union: New York and the Civil War (2002) Essays by scholars
  • Hubbard, Mark. Illinois's War: The Civil War in Documents (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Karamanski, Theodore J. Rally 'Round the Flag: Chicago and the Civil War (1993).
  • Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington, 1860–1865 (1941), Pulitzer Prize
  • McKay Ernest A. The Civil War and New York City (1990)
  • Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume 1: A Reference Guide for Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont in the Civil War (2013) excerpt
  • * Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume 2: A Reference Guide for New York in the Civil War (2014) excerpt
  • Nation, Richard F. and Stephen E. Towne. Indiana's War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Niven, John. Connecticut for the Union: The Role of the State in the Civil War (Yale University Press, 1965)
  • O'Connor, Thomas H. Civil War Boston (1999)
  • Parrish, William E. A History of Missouri, Volume III: 1860 to 1875 (1973) (ISBN 0-8262-0148-2)
  • Pierce, Bessie. A History of Chicago, Volume II: From Town to City 1848–1871 (1940)
  • A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War. Boston: E.P. Dutton & Co. 2662693.
  • Ponce, Pearl T. Kansas's War: The Civil War in Documents (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community at War (2011) about Cortland New York
  • Roseboom, Eugene. The Civil War Era, 1850-1873, History of Ohio, vol. 4 (1944) online, Detailed scholarly history
  • Siddali, Silvana R. Missouri's War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. Indiana politics during the Civil War (1949)
  • Taylor, Paul. "Old Slow Town": Detroit during the Civil War (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2013). x, 248 pp.
  • Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850–1880 (1965)
  • Ware, Edith E. Political Opinion in Massachusetts during the Civil War and Reconstruction, (1916). full text online

Women and family

  • Anderson, J. L. "The Vacant Chair on the Farm: Soldier Husbands, Farm Wives, and the Iowa Home Front, 1861–1865," Annals of Iowa (2007) 66: 241–265
  • Attie, Jeanie. Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (1998). 294 pp.
  • Bahde, Thomas. "'I never wood git tired of wrighting to you.'" Journal of Illinois History (2009). 12:129-55
  • Giesberg, Judith. Army at Home: Women and the Civil War on the Northern Home Front (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann. "From Harvest Field to Battlefield: Rural Pennsylvania Women and the U.S. Civil War," Pennsylvania History (2005). 72: 159–191
  • Harper, Judith E. Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia. (2004). 472 pp.
  • Marten, James. Children for the Union: The War Spirit on the Northern Home Front. Ivan R. Dee, 2004. 209 pp.
  • Massey, Mary. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War (1966), excellent overview North and South; reissued as Women in the Civil War (1994)
    • Giesberg, Judith. "Mary Elizabeth Massey and the Civil War Centennial." Civil War History 61.4 (2015): 400-406. online
  • Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front," Indiana Magazine of History 97#2 (2001), pp. 105–128 in JSTOR
  • Silber, Nina. Daughters of the Union: Northern Women Fight the Civil War. (Harvard UP, 2005). 332 pp.
  • Venet, Wendy Hamand. A Strong-Minded Woman: The Life of Mary Livermore. (U. of Massachusetts Press, 2005). 322 pp.

Primary sources

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