The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted
low-bypass turbofan engines arranged similarly to those of the
Boeing 727, but it is slightly larger than its American counterpart. Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an
S-duct for the middle (Number 2) engine. The original model was equipped with
NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with
D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a relatively high
thrust-to-weight-ratio which gave excellent performance, at the expense of lower
fuel efficiency. This became an important factor in later decades as fuel costs grew.
flight deck is fitted with conventional dual
yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated.
The cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on
Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, and up to 180 passengers in high-density layout. The layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Boeing and Airbus counterparts. Luggage space in the overhead compartments is very limited.
Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing
swept back at 35° at the quarter-
chord line. The British
Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a slightly smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing also has
anhedral (downward sweep) which is a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have
dihedral (upward sweep). The anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but also have weaker
Dutch roll tendencies.
Considerably heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the
Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized
landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways. The aircraft has two six-wheel main
bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the
trailing edges of the wings (a common Tupolev feature), plus a two-wheel nose gear unit. Soft oleo struts (
shock absorbers) provide a much smoother ride on bumpy airfields than most airliners, which very rarely operate on such poor surfaces.
The original requirement was to have a three-person
flight crew –
first officer and
flight engineer – as opposed to a four- or five-person crew, like on other Soviet airliners. It became evident that a fourth crew member, a
navigator, was still needed, and a seat was added on production aircraft, although their workstation was compromised due to the limitations of the original design. Navigators are no longer trained and this profession is becoming obsolete with the retirement of older Soviet-era planes.
The latest variant (Tu-154M-100, introduced 1998) includes an NVU-B3
Doppler navigation system, a triple
autopilot, which provides an automatic ILS approach according to
ICAO category II weather minima, an
autothrottle, a Doppler drift and speed measure system (DISS), and a "Kurs-MP" radio navigation suite. A stability and control augmentation system improves handling characteristics during manual flight. Modern upgrades normally include a
GPS and other modern systems, mostly American or EU-made.
Early versions of the Tu-154 cannot be modified to meet the current Stage III
noise regulations and are banned from flying where those regulations are in force, such as the European Union.