abU.S. Bureau of the Census, A century of population growth from the first census of the United States to the twelfth, 1790–1900 (1909) p. 9.
^Richard Middleton and Anne Lombard, Colonial America: A History to 1763 (4th ed. 2011),
^The number 13 is mentioned as early as 1720 by
p. 376: "so in this Country we have Thirteen Colonies at least severally govern'd by their repective Commanders in Chief, according to their peculiar Laws and Constitutions." This includes Carolina as a single colony, and does not include Georgia, but instead counts
Nova Scotia and
Newfoundland as British colonies. Early use of the term "thirteen colonies" in this context date to the American Revolution, for example
p. 136: "during the last war, no part of his majesty's dominions contained a greater proportion of faithful subjects than the Thirteen Colonies. This being the case he [the writer] asks, how can it happen, that a people so lately loyal, should so suddenly become universally disloyal, and firmly attached to republican government".
^Donald William Meinig. The Shaping of America: Atlantic America, 1492–1800 (1986), p. 315; Greene and Pole, eds. '"A Companion to the American Revolution (2004), ch. 63
^T.H. Breen, American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People (2010) pp 81–82
^Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789 (Oxford History of the United States) (2007)
^Note: the population figures are estimates by historians; they do not include the Indian tribes outside the jurisdiction of the colonies. They do include Indians living under colonial control, as well as slaves and indentured servants. U.S. Bureau of the Census, A century of population growth from the first census of the United States to the twelfth, 1790–1900 (1909) p. 9
^P. J. Marshall, ed. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (2001)
^Robert L. Middlekauff, "The American Continental Colonies in the Empire", in Robin Winks, ed., The Historiography of the British Empire-Commonwealth: Trends, Interpretations and Resources (1966) pp 23-45.
^William G. Shade, "Lawrence Henry Gipson's Empire: The Critics". Pennsylvania History (1969): 49-69 online.
^Brendan Simms, Three victories and a defeat: the rise and fall of the first British Empire 2008
^Ellen Holmes Pearson. "Revising Custom, Embracing Choice: Early American Legal Scholars and the Republicanization of the Common Law", in Gould and Onuf, eds. Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World (2005) pp 93-113