Seoul | geography

Geography

Seoul is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.25 km2 (233.69 sq mi),[1] with a radius of approximately 15 km (9 mi), roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea).[47] The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. Historically, the city was during the Joseon dynasty bounded by the Seoul Fortress Wall, which stretched between the four main mountains in central Seoul: Namsan, Naksan, Bukhansan and Inwangsan. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas. Due to its geography and to economic development policies, Seoul is a very polycentric city. The area that was the old capital in the Joseon dynasty, and mostly comprises Jongno District and Jung District, constitutes the historical and political center of the city. However, for example, the city's financial capital is widely considered to be in Yeouido, while its economic capital is Gangnam District.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Seoul has a humid continental climate, also bordering a humid subtropical climate. The suburbs of Seoul are generally cooler than the center of Seoul because of the urban heat island effect.[48] Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until September. August, the warmest month, has average high and low temperatures of 29.6 and 22.4 °C (85 and 72 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are usually cold to freezing with average January high and low temperatures of 1.5 and −5.9 °C (34.7 and 21.4 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 24.9 days of snow annually. Sometimes, temperatures drop dramatically to below −10 °C (14 °F), and on some occasions as low as −15 °C (5 °F) in the mid winter period of January and February. Temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) have been recorded.[49]


Climate data for Seoul (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1907–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
18.7
(65.7)
23.8
(74.8)
29.8
(85.6)
34.4
(93.9)
37.2
(99)
38.4
(101.1)
39.6
(103.3)
35.1
(95.2)
30.1
(86.2)
25.9
(78.6)
17.7
(63.9)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
4.7
(40.5)
10.4
(50.7)
17.8
(64)
23.0
(73.4)
27.1
(80.8)
28.6
(83.5)
29.6
(85.3)
25.8
(78.4)
19.8
(67.6)
11.6
(52.9)
4.3
(39.7)
17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
0.4
(32.7)
5.7
(42.3)
12.5
(54.5)
17.8
(64)
22.2
(72)
24.9
(76.8)
25.7
(78.3)
21.2
(70.2)
14.8
(58.6)
7.2
(45)
0.4
(32.7)
12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.6
(34.9)
7.8
(46)
13.2
(55.8)
18.2
(64.8)
21.9
(71.4)
22.4
(72.3)
17.2
(63)
10.3
(50.5)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
8.6
(47.5)
Record low °C (°F) −22.5
(−8.5)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−14.1
(6.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
2.4
(36.3)
8.8
(47.8)
12.9
(55.2)
13.5
(56.3)
3.2
(37.8)
−5.1
(22.8)
−11.9
(10.6)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−23.1
(−9.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.8
(0.819)
25.0
(0.984)
47.2
(1.858)
64.5
(2.539)
105.9
(4.169)
133.2
(5.244)
394.7
(15.539)
364.2
(14.339)
169.3
(6.665)
51.8
(2.039)
52.5
(2.067)
21.5
(0.846)
1,450.5
(57.106)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.5 5.8 7.4 7.8 9.0 9.9 16.3 14.6 9.1 6.3 8.7 7.4 108.8
Average snowy days 8.0 5.2 3.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.1 6.1 24.9
Average relative humidity (%) 59.8 57.9 57.8 56.2 62.7 68.1 78.3 75.6 69.2 64.0 62.0 60.6 64.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.3 163.3 189.0 205.0 213.0 182.0 120.0 152.5 176.2 198.8 153.2 152.6 2,066
Percent possible sunshine 52.3 53.6 51.0 51.9 48.4 41.2 26.8 36.2 47.2 57.1 50.2 51.1 46.4
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[50][51][52] (percent sunshine and snowy days)[53]


Air quality

   Very Unhealthy
   Unhealthy
   Unhealthy for sensitive groups
   Moderate
  Good
According to the Environmental Performance Index 2016, South Korea ranked 173rd out of 180 countries in terms of air quality. More than 50 percent of the populations in South Korea exposed to dangerous levels of fine dust.[54][55]

Air pollution is a major issue in Seoul.[56][57] According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database,[58] the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2014 was 24 micrograms per cubic metre (1.0×10−5 gr/cu ft), which is 2.4 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines[59] for the annual mean PM2.5. The Seoul Metropolitan Government monitors and publicly shares real-time air quality data.[60]

Since the early 1960s, the Ministry of Environment has implemented a range of policies and air pollutant standards to improve and manage air quality for its people.[61] The "Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area" was passed in December 2003. Its 1st Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan (2005-2014) focused on improving the concentrations of PM10 and nitrogen dioxide by reducing emissions.[62] As a result, the annual average PM10 concentrations decreased from 70.0 μg/m3 in 2001 to 44.4 μg/m3 in 2011[63] and 46 μg/m3 in 2014.[58] As of 2014, the annual average PM10 concentration was still at least twice than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines.[59] The 2nd Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan (2015–2024) added PM2.5 and ozone to its list of managed pollutants.[64]

Asian dust, emissions from Seoul and in general from the rest of South Korea, as well as emissions from China, all contribute to Seoul's air quality.[57][65] A partnership between researchers in South Korea and the United States is conducting an international air quality field study in Korea (KORUS-AQ) to determine how much each source contributes.[66]

Other Languages
Acèh: Seoul
Afrikaans: Seoel
Alemannisch: Seoul
አማርኛ: ሶውል
العربية: سول
aragonés: Seúl
অসমীয়া: ছিউল
asturianu: Seúl
Avañe'ẽ: Seúl
azərbaycanca: Seul
تۆرکجه: سئول
বাংলা: সিউল
Bahasa Banjar: Seoul
башҡортса: Сеул
беларуская: Сеул
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэул
भोजपुरी: सियोल
Bislama: Seoul
български: Сеул
བོད་ཡིག: སེ་ཨུལ།
bosanski: Seoul
brezhoneg: Seoul
буряад: Сеул
català: Seül
Чӑвашла: Сеул
Cebuano: Seoul
čeština: Soul
Chi-Chewa: Seoul
chiShona: Seoul
Cymraeg: Seoul
dansk: Seoul
Deutsch: Seoul
dolnoserbski: Soul
डोटेली: सियोल
eesti: Soul
Ελληνικά: Σεούλ
español: Seúl
Esperanto: Seulo
estremeñu: Seúl
euskara: Seul
فارسی: سئول
Fiji Hindi: Seoul
føroyskt: Seoul
français: Séoul
Frysk: Seoel
Gaeilge: Súl
Gagauz: Seul
Gàidhlig: Seoul
galego: Seúl
ГӀалгӀай: Сеул
贛語: 首爾
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Seoul
한국어: 서울특별시
Hausa: Seoul
հայերեն: Սեուլ
हिन्दी: सियोल
hornjoserbsce: Seoul
hrvatski: Seul
Ido: Seoul
Ilokano: Seoul
Bahasa Indonesia: Seoul
interlingua: Seoul
Interlingue: Seoul
Ирон: Сеул
íslenska: Seúl
italiano: Seul
עברית: סיאול
Basa Jawa: Seoul
Kabɩyɛ: Sewuuli
kalaallisut: Seoul
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೌಲ್
ქართული: სეული
kaszëbsczi: Seul
қазақша: Сеул
kernowek: Seoul
Kiswahili: Seoul
Kongo: Seoul
Kreyòl ayisyen: Seoul
kurdî: Sêûl
Кыргызча: Сеул
Ladino: Seul
لۊری شومالی: سئوٙل
Latina: Seulum
latviešu: Seula
Lëtzebuergesch: Seoul
лезги: Сеул
lietuvių: Seulas
Ligure: Seoul
Limburgs: Seoel
lingála: Sɔul
Lingua Franca Nova: Seoul
lumbaart: Seoul
magyar: Szöul
македонски: Сеул
മലയാളം: സോൾ
Māori: Seoul
मराठी: सोल
მარგალური: სეული
مصرى: سول
Bahasa Melayu: Seoul
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Seoul
Mirandés: Seul
монгол: Сөүл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆိုးလ်မြို့
Nāhuatl: Seul
Dorerin Naoero: Seoul
Nederlands: Seoel
नेपाली: सोल
नेपाल भाषा: सोल
нохчийн: Сеул
Nordfriisk: Seoul
Norfuk / Pitkern: Soel
norsk: Seoul
norsk nynorsk: Seoul
occitan: Seol
олык марий: Сеул
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Seul
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿਓਲ
پنجابی: سیول
Papiamentu: Seoul
پښتو: سيول
Patois: Siol
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សេអ៊ូល
Picard: Séoul
Piemontèis: Seoul
Tok Pisin: Sol
polski: Seul
português: Seul
Qaraqalpaqsha: Seul
qırımtatarca: Seul
română: Seul
rumantsch: Seoul
Runa Simi: Siyul
русиньскый: Соул
русский: Сеул
саха тыла: Сеул
Scots: Seoul
shqip: Seuli
sicilianu: Seoul
Simple English: Seoul
slovenčina: Soul
slovenščina: Seul
ślůnski: Seul
Soomaaliga: Seoul
کوردی: سێئول
српски / srpski: Сеул
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Seul
Basa Sunda: Seoul
svenska: Seoul
Tagalog: Seoul
தமிழ்: சியோல்
Taqbaylit: Seyul
tarandíne: Seul
татарча/tatarça: Seul
ไทย: โซล
тоҷикӣ: Сеул
Türkçe: Seul
Türkmençe: Seul
українська: Сеул
اردو: سؤل
Vahcuengh: Soujwj
vèneto: Seul
vepsän kel’: Seul
Tiếng Việt: Seoul
Volapük: Söul
Võro: Sŏul
Winaray: Seoul
吴语: 首尔
ייִדיש: סעאל
Yorùbá: Seoul
粵語: 首爾
Zazaki: Seul
žemaitėška: Seuls
中文: 首爾