Prehistoric to Iron Age
- Ubaid period (5300 BCE) – could have originated in Eastern Arabia.
- Umm an-Nar Culture (2600–2000 BCE)
Sabr culture (2000 BCE)
- Wadi Suq Culture (1900–1300 BCE)
Lizq/Rumaylah = Early Iron Age (1300–300 BCE)
Samad Period Late Iron Age (c. 100 BCE–c.300 CE)
Recent Pre-Islamic Period (c. 150 BCE–c. 325 CE)
Magan, Midian, and ʿĀd
- Magan is attested as the name of a trading partner of the Sumerians. It is often assumed to have been located in Oman.
- The A'adids established themselves in South Arabia (modern-day Yemen), settling to the east of the Qahtan tribe. They established the Kingdom of ʿĀd around the 10th century BCE to the 3rd century CE.
The ʿĀd nation were known to the Greeks and Egyptians. Claudius Ptolemy's Geographos (2nd century CE) refers to the area as the "land of the Iobaritae" a region which legend later referred to as Ubar.
The origin of the Midianites has not been established. Because of the Mycenaean motifs on what is referred to as Midianite pottery, some scholars including George Mendenhall, Peter Parr, and Beno Rothenberg have suggested that the Midianites were originally Sea Peoples who migrated from the Aegean region and imposed themselves on a pre-existing Semitic stratum. The question of the origin of the Midianites still remains open.