Pre-Islamic Arabia | notes

Notes

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-30. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  2. ^ Ronald G.Blom, .; Robert Crippen; Charles Elachi; Nicholas Clapp; George R. Hedges; Juris Zarins (2007). "Southern Arabian Desert Trade Routes, Frankincense, Myrrh, and the Ubar Legend". In Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Springer. p. 71. ISBN Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. 
  3. ^ George Mendenhall, "Qurayya and the Midianites," in Studies in the History of Arabia, Vol. 3, ed. A. R. Al-Ansary (Riyadh: King Saud University), pp. 137–45
  4. ^ Peter J. Parr, "Further Reflections on Late Second Millennium Settlement in North West Arabia," in Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeologial Research and Methodology, ed. J. D. Seger (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1996), pp. 213–18.
  5. ^ Rothenberg, "Egyptian Chariots, Midianites from Hijaz/ Midian (Northwest Arabia) and Amalekites from the Negev in the Timna Mines: Rock drawings in the Ancient Copper Mines of the Arabah – new aspects of the region’s history II," Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, newsletter no. 23 (2003), p. 12.
  6. ^ a b "Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language And Literature". J R Smart, J. R. Smart. 2013. 
  7. ^ "The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity". Averil Cameron. 1993. p. 185. 
  8. ^ "E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 5". M. Th. Houtsma. 1993. p. 98. 
  9. ^ a b "Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary". Clive Holes. 2001. pp. XXIV–XXVI. 
  10. ^ Robert Bertram Serjeant (1968). "Fisher-folk and fish-traps in al-Bahrain". SOAS: 488. 614301. 
  11. ^ Paul A. Yule, Cross-roads – Early and Late Iron Age South-eastern Arabia, Abhandlungen Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, vol. 30, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-447-10127-1
  12. ^ Patricia Crone (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. p. 371. ISBN 9780748621941. 
  13. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder (2005). Close Relationships: Incest and Inbreeding in Classical Arabic Literature. p. 110. ISBN 9781850438557. 
  14. ^ Matt Stefon (2009). Islamic Beliefs and Practices. p. 36. ISBN 9781615300174. 
  15. ^ Zanaty, Anwer Mahmoud. Glossary Of Islamic Terms. 
  16. ^ "Non-Arabic Semitic elements in the Arabic dialects of eastern Arabia". Clive Holes. 2002. pp. 270–279. 
  17. ^ "Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary". Clive Holes. 2001. pp. XXIX–XXX. 
  18. ^ a b c Jesper Eidema, Flemming Højlundb (1993). "Trade or diplomacy? Assyria and Dilmun in the eighteenth century BC". World Archaeology. 24 (3): 441–448. Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. 
  19. ^ "Egypt's Making: The Origins of Ancient Egypt 5000-2000 BC". Michael Rice. 1991. p. 230. 
  20. ^ "Bahrain digs unveil one of oldest civilisations". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Edward Conklin (1998). Getting Back Into the Garden of Eden. p. 10. ISBN 9780761811404. 
  23. ^ Dilmun and Its Gulf Neighbours by Harriet E. W. Crawford, page 5
  24. ^ "Dilmun and Its Gulf Neighbours". Harriet E. W. Crawford. 1998. p. 152. 
  25. ^ Larsen 1983, p. 50-51.
  26. ^ "Traces of Paradise: The Archaeology of Bahrain, 2500 BC to 300 AD". Harriet Crawford, Michael Rice. 2000. p. 217. 
  27. ^ Thorkild Jacobsen (23 September 1997). The Harps that once--: Sumerian poetry in translation, p. 150. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07278-5. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  28. ^ Potts (1990), p. 56.
  29. ^ Bibby, pp. 317-318.
  30. ^ Strabon, Geography, i6. 4. 19-20
  31. ^ Yaqut. Mujam Buldan. ISBN 9004082689. Hagar is the name of Bahrain and its capital Hagar destroyed by Qarmatians 
  32. ^ Gerrha, The Ancient City Of International Trade جره مدينة التجارة العالمية القديمة
  33. ^ Larsen, Curtis (1983). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46906-9.
  34. ^ Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society By Curtis E. Larsen p. 13
  35. ^ a b c d e Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime Political Geography By Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, page 119
  36. ^ Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, Historical Researches Into the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Principal Nations of Antiquity, Henry Bohn, 1854 p38
  37. ^ Arnold Heeren, ibid, p441
  38. ^ See Ares, Ares in the Arabian Peninsula section
  39. ^ Classical Greece: Ancient histories and modern archaeologies, Ian Morris, Routledge, p184
  40. ^ Phillip Ward, Bahrain: A Travel Guide, Oleander Press p68
  41. ^ W. B. Fisher et al. The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press 1968 p40
  42. ^ Jean Francois Salles in Traces of Paradise: The Archaeology of Bahrain, 2500BC-300AD in Michael Rice, Harriet Crawford Ed, IB Tauris, 2002 p132
  43. ^ Jean Francois Salles p132
  44. ^ Curtis E. Larsen. Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society University Of Chicago Press, 1984 p13
  45. ^ Ju. B. Tsirkin. "Canaan. Phoenicia. Sidon" (PDF). p. 274. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-12-03. 
  46. ^ R. A. Donkin (1998). Beyond Price: Pearls and Pearl-fishing : Origins to the Age of Discoveries, Volume 224. p. 48. ISBN 9780871692245. 
  47. ^ Michael Rice (1986). Bahrain Through The Ages - Archa. pp. 401–402. ISBN 9780710301123. 
  48. ^ Arnold Heeren, p441
  49. ^ Rice, Michael (1994). The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-415-03268-1. 
  50. ^ Rice, Michael (1994). The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-415-03268-1. 
  51. ^ a b Bahrain By Federal Research Division, page 7
  52. ^ Robert G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam, Routledge 2001p28
  53. ^ a b c Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim Elites in ... By Jamsheed K. Choksy, 1997, page 75
  54. ^ Yoma 77a and Rosh Hashbanah, 23a
  55. ^ Strong's Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words
  56. ^ a b "Nestorian Christianity in the Pre-Islamic UAE and Southeastern Arabia" Archived 2012-04-19 at the Wayback Machine., Peter Hellyer, Journal of Social Affairs, volume 18, number 72, winter 2011, p. 88
  57. ^ "AUB academics awarded $850,000 grant for project on the Syriac writers of Qatar in the 7th century AD" (PDF). American University of Beirut. 31 May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  58. ^ Kozah, Mario; Abu-Husayn, Abdulrahim; Al-Murikhi, Saif Shaheen (2014). The Syriac Writers of Qatar in the Seventh Century. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 24. ISBN 978-1463203559. 
  59. ^ a b c d "Christianity in the Gulf during the first centuries of Islam" (PDF). Oxford Brookes University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  60. ^ Curtis E. Larsen. Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society University Of Chicago Press, 1984.
  61. ^ Kozah, Abu-Husayn, Abdulrahim. p. 1.
  62. ^ Fromherz, Allen (13 April 2012). Qatar: A Modern History. Georgetown University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-58901-910-2. 
  63. ^ Nebes, Norbert. "Epigraphic South Arabian", Encyclopaedia: D-Ha pp. 334; Leonid Kogan and Andrey Korotayev: Ṣayhadic Languages (Epigraphic South Arabian) // Semitic Languages. London: Routledge, 1997, p. 157–183.
  64. ^ "Dead link". Archived from the original on 2007-11-12. 
  65. ^ Sima, Alexander. "Dʿmt" in Siegbert Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 185.
  66. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum: a Civilization of Late Antiquity, (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), p. 58.
  67. ^ "Culture of Yemen - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. 
  68. ^ Müller, Walter W. "Ḥaḍramawt"Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, pp. 965–66.
  69. ^ Yule, Paul. Himyar Spätantike im Jemen Late Antique Yemen 2007, pp. map. p. 16 Fog. 3,45–55.
  70. ^ Sima, Alexander. "GDR(T)", Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, p. 718–9.
  71. ^ Munro-Hay, Aksum, p. 72.
  72. ^ Yule, Paul, A Late Antique christian king from Ẓafār, southern Arabia, Antiquity 87, 2013, 1124-35.
  73. ^ Stearns, Peter N.; Langer, William Leonard (2001), The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged (6th, illustrated ed.), Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 41, ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4 
  74. ^ "Arabs". Livius.org. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  75. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica Archived November 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  76. ^ "Saudi Aramco World : Well of Good Fortune". Saudiaramworld.com. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  77. ^ D. H. Müller, Al-Hamdani, 53, 124, W. Caskel, Entdeckungen In Arabien, Koln, 1954, S. 9. Mahram, P.318
  78. ^ History of Arabia – Kindah Archived 2015-04-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  79. ^ Le Museon, 3-4, 1953, P.296, Bulletin Of The School Of Oriental And African Studies, University Of London, Vol., Xvi, Part: 3, 1954, P.434, Ryckmans 508
  80. ^ Jamme 635. See: Jawād 'Alī: Al-Mufaṣṣal fī Tārīkh al-'Arab Qabl al-Islam, Part 39.
  81. ^ Blench 2010, pp. 4–5
  82. ^ Blench 2010, p. 10
  83. ^ McNutt 2003, p. 43
  84. ^ Bosworth, Heinrichs & Donzel 2003, p. 814
  85. ^ Meeker 1979, p. 22
  86. ^ Doughty & Lawrence 2010, p. 282
  87. ^ a b c Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009). Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State. p. 30. ISBN 978-9089640451.  "The ‘arabicised or arabicising Arabs’, on the contrary, are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan, but in this case the genealogy does not match the Biblical line exactly. The label ‘arabicised’ is due to the belief that Ishmael spoke Hebrew until he got to Mecca, where he married a Yemeni woman and learnt Arabic. Both genealogical lines go back to Sem, son of Noah, but only Adnanites can claim Abraham as their ascendant, and the lineage of Mohammed, the Seal of Prophets (khatim al-anbiya'), can therefore be traced back to Abraham. Contemporary historiography unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence; the distinction between Qahtanites and Adnanites is even believed to be a product of the Umayyad Age, when the war of factions (al-niza al-hizbi) was raging in the young Islamic Empire."
  88. ^ Reuven Firestone (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis. p. 72. ISBN 9780791403310. 
  89. ^ Göran Larsson (2003). Ibn García's Shuʻūbiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval al-Andalus. p. 170. ISBN 9004127402. 
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  93. ^ Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8028-0754-0. 
  94. ^ Karen Armstrong (2000). Islam: A Short History. p. 11. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X. 
  95. ^ Hugh Goddard (2000). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-1-56663-340-6. 
  96. ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. pp. 87–93. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4. 
  97. ^ Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam. Columbia University Press. pp. 31, 32. ISBN 9780231531924. 
  98. ^ The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47, 48. ISBN 9780521588133. 
  99. ^ Liska, George (1998). Expanding Realism: The Historical Dimension of World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 170. ISBN 9780847686797. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  100. ^ Compare: Ibrahim, Hayder (1979). "The Region: Time and Space". The Shaiqiya: the cultural and social change of a Northern Sudanese riverain people. Studien zur Kulturkunde. 49. Steiner. p. 7. ISBN 9783515029070. Retrieved 2018-02-08. There was a continuous migration from Arabia to the neighbouring regions, because the Arabian peninsula was overpopulated and lacked resources and periodic drought drove the people out of the region. [...] The overflow of migration accelerated during the Islamic expansion [...]. 
  101. ^ "Bury, John.", "A history of the later Roman empire: from Arcadius to Irene.", "(New York: 1889)", "401"
  102. ^ "Sicker, Martin", "The Pre-Islamic Middle East","(Connecticut:2000)", "201."
  103. ^ "Egger, Vernon", "Origins" in A History of the Muslim World to 1405: The Making of a Civilization", "(New Jersey: 2005)", "10"
  104. ^ "Ware, Timothy", "The Orthodox Church", "(New York:1997)", "67 – 69"
  105. ^ "Bowersock", "Brown", and "Grabar", ""Alphabetical Guide" in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Post-Classical World", "(Cambridge: 2000)", "469".
  106. ^ "Singh, Nagendra", "International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties", "(India: 2005)", "75"
  107. ^ Liska, George (1998). Expanding Realism: The Historical Dimension of World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 170. ISBN 9780847686797. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  108. ^ "Egger", "2005", "33"
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