Mongolic languages | pre-proto-mongolic


Pre-Proto-Mongolic's position on the chronological tree of Mongolic language

Pre-Proto-Mongolic is the name for the stage of Mongolic that precedes Proto-Mongolic.

Proto-Mongolic can be clearly identified chronologically with the language spoken by the Mongols during Genghis Khan's early expansion in the 1200-1210s.

Pre-Proto-Mongolic, by contrast, is a continuum that stretches back indefinitely in time. It is divided into Early Pre-Proto-Mongolic and Late Pre-Proto-Mongolic. Late Pre-Proto-Mongolic refers to the Mongolic spoken a few centuries before Proto-Mongolic by the Mongols and neighboring tribes like the Merkits and Keraits. Certain archaic words and features in Written Mongol go back past Proto-Mongolic to Late Pre-Proto-Mongolic (Janhunen 2006).

Relationship with Turkic

Pre-Proto-Mongolic has borrowed various words from Turkic languages.

In the case of Early Pre-Proto-Mongolic, certain loanwords in the Mongolic languages point to early contact with Oghur (Pre-Proto-Bulgaric) Turkic, also known as r-Turkic. These loanwords precede Common Turkic (z-Turkic) loanwords and include:

  • Mongolic ikere (twins) from Pre-Proto-Bulgaric ikir (versus Common Turkic ekiz)
  • Mongolic hüker (ox) from Pre-Proto-Bulgaric hekür (Common Turkic öküz)
  • Mongolic jer (weapon) from Pre-Proto-Bulgaric jer (Common Turkic yäz)
  • Mongolic biragu (calf) versus Common Turkic buzagu
  • Mongolic siri- (to smelt ore) versus Common Turkic siz- (to melt)

The above words are thought to have been borrowed from Oghur Turkic during the time of the Xiongnu.

Later Turkic peoples in Mongolia all spoke forms of Common Turkic (z-Turkic) as opposed to Oghur (Bulgharic) Turkic, which withdrew to the west in the 4th century. The Chuvash language, spoken by 1 million people in European Russia, is the only living representative of Oghur Turkic which split from Common Turkic around the 1st century CE.

Words in Mongolic like dayir (brown, Common Turkic yagiz) and nidurga (fist, Common Turkic yudruk) with initial *d and *n versus Common Turkic *y are sufficiently archaic to indicate loans from an earlier stage of Oghur (Pre-Proto-Bulgaric). This is because Chuvash and Common Turkic do not differ in these features despite differing fundamentally in rhotacism-lambdacism (Janhunen 2006). Oghur tribes lived in the Mongolian borderlands before the 5th century, and provided Oghur loanwords to Early Pre-Proto-Mongolic before Common Turkic loanwords.[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mongoolse tale
العربية: لغات منغولية
aragonés: Luengas mongols
azərbaycanca: Monqol dilləri
беларуская: Мангольскія мовы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мангольскія мовы
български: Монголски езици
brezhoneg: Yezhoù mongolek
dolnoserbski: Mongolske rěcy
Esperanto: Mongola lingvaro
français: Langues mongoles
한국어: 몽골어족
hornjoserbsce: Mongolske rěče
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Mongolik
latviešu: Mongoļu valodas
lietuvių: Mongolų kalbos
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas mongolica
македонски: Монголски јазици
Nederlands: Mongoolse talen
norsk nynorsk: Mongolske språk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Moʻgʻul tillari
română: Limbi mongolice
Runa Simi: Mungul rimaykuna
Simple English: Mongolic languages
slovenčina: Mongolské jazyky
српски / srpski: Монголски језици
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mongolski jezici
svenska: Mongolspråk
татарча/tatarça: Монгол телләре
Türkçe: Moğol dilleri
українська: Монгольські мови
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مۇڭغۇل تىللىرى
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ hệ Mông Cổ
粵語: 蒙古語族
中文: 蒙古语族