Justinian I | notes

Notes

  1. ^ History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Volume 2, J. B. Bury, Cosimo, Inc., 2008, ISBN p. 7.
  2. ^ Also known as Saint Justinian the Emperor and other various venerable epithets.
  3. ^ "St. Justinian the Emperor". Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2017-11-25. 
  4. ^ J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century (Cambridge, 2003), 17–19.
  5. ^ For instance by George Philip Baker (Justinian, New York 1938), or in the Outline of Great Books series (Justinian the Great).
  6. ^ On the western Roman Empire, see now H. Börm, Westrom (Stuttgart 2013).
  7. ^ "History 303: Finances under Justinian". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  8. ^ Evans, J. A. S., The Age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial power. pp. 93–94
  9. ^ John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 9–11.
  10. ^ The precise location of this site is disputed; the possible locations include Justiniana Prima near the modern town of Lebane in southern Serbia and Taor near Skopje, Macedonia
  11. ^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2008, ISBN p. 1007.
  12. ^ The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0 (page 90). Justinian referred to Latin as his native tongue in several of his laws. See Moorhead (1994), p. 18.
  13. ^ Michael Maas (2005-04-18). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139826877. 
  14. ^ Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A history of the Byzantine state and society. Stanford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  15. ^ Barker, John W. (1966). Justinian and the later Roman Empire. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-299-03944-8. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  16. ^ Robert Browning (2003). Justinian and Theodora. Gorgias Press. ISBN 9781593330538. 
  17. ^ Shifting Genres in Late Antiquity, Hugh Elton, Geoffrey Greatrex, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015, ISBN p. 259.
  18. ^ Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, András Mócsy, Routledge, 2014, ISBN p. 350.
  19. ^ The sole source for Justinian's full name, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (sometimes called Flavius Anicius Iustinianus), are consular diptychs of the year 521 bearing his name.
  20. ^ Sima M. Cirkovic (7 June 2004). The Serbs. Wiley. ISBN 9780631204718. 
  21. ^ Justiniana Prima Site of an early Byzantine city located 30 km south-west of Leskovci in Kosovo. Grove's Dictionaries. 2006. 
  22. ^ Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life. BRILL. 2001. ISBN 9004116257. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robert Browning. "Justinian I" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume VII (1986).
  24. ^ Cambridge Ancient History p. 65
  25. ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 21–22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History 8.3.
  26. ^ This post seems to have been titular; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–133 (pp. 113–114).
  27. ^ See Procopius, Secret history, ch. 13.
  28. ^ M. Meier, Justinian, p. 57.
  29. ^ P. N. Ure, Justinian and his age, p. 200.
  30. ^ "DIR Justinian". Roman Emperors. 1998-07-25. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  31. ^ Robert Browning, Justinian and Theodora (1987), 129; James Allan Evans, The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian (2002), 104
  32. ^ Theological treatises authored by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86.
  33. ^ Crowley, Roger (2011). City of Fortune, How Venice Won and Lost a Naval Empire. London: Faber & Faber Ltd. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-571-24595-6. 
  34. ^ "S. P. Scott: The Civil Law". Constitution.org. 2002-06-19. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  35. ^ Kunkel, W. (translated by J. M. Kelly) An introduction to Roman legal and constitutional history. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966; 168
  36. ^ Darrell P. Hammer. "Russia and the Roman Law". JSTOR. 3001333. 
  37. ^ Garland (1999), pp. 16–17
  38. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 200
  39. ^ Diehl, Charles. Theodora, Empress of Byzantium ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance), 89.
  40. ^ Vasiliev (1958), p. 157.
  41. ^ For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22–24, 63–98, and 101–9.
  42. ^ See A. D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–33 (pp. 113–14). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of Codex Iustinianus 1.27.1 and Novellae 8.10.2 and 30.11.2.
  43. ^ Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. Justinian and Theodora. London 1971, 193.)
  44. ^ See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century" in Michael Maas (ed.). Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 477–509.
  45. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, p. 195.
  46. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 68.
  47. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 70.
  48. ^ Procopius. "II.XXVIII". De Bello Vandalico. 
  49. ^ a b c d "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". Tulane. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. 
  50. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 215
  51. ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 84–86.
  52. ^ See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and especially H. Börm, "Der Perserkönig im Imperium Romanum", in Chiron 36, 2006, p. 299 ff.
  53. ^ a b J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 229
  54. ^ Procopius mentions this event both in the Wars and in the Secret History, but gives two entirely different explanations for it. The evidence is briefly discussed in Moorhead (1994), pp. 97–98.
  55. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 235
  56. ^ Moorhead ((1994), p. 164) gives the lower, Greatrex ((2005), p. 489) the higher figure.
  57. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 251
  58. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 233
  59. ^ Universal history, ancient and modern. 
  60. ^ Getica, 303
  61. ^ See Lee (2005), p. 125 ff.
  62. ^ W. Pohl, "Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms", in Maas (2005), pp. 448–476; 472
  63. ^ See Haldon (2003), pp. 17–19.
  64. ^ Meyendorff 1989, pp. 207–250.
  65. ^ Treatises written by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86.
  66. ^ Cod., I., i. 5.
  67. ^ MPG, lxxxvi. 1, p. 993.
  68. ^ Cod., I., i. 7.
  69. ^ Novellae, cxxxi.
  70. ^ Mansi, Concilia, viii. 970B.
  71. ^ Novellae, xlii.
  72. ^ P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, 283
  73. ^ cf. Novellae, cxxxi.
  74. ^ Cod., I., xi. 9 and 10.
  75. ^ Lindberg, David C. "The Beginnings of Western Science", page 70
  76. ^ François Nau, in Revue de l'orient chretien, ii., 1897, 482.
  77. ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, ii. 14; Evagrius, Hist. eccl., iv. 20
  78. ^ Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 23.
  79. ^ Procopius, iv. 3; Evagrius, iv. 22.
  80. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 15.
  81. ^ Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. 2.
  82. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 19.
  83. ^ DCB, iii. 482
  84. ^ John of Ephesus, Hist. eccl., iv. 5 sqq.
  85. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 20; Malalas, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1831, pp. 433 sqq.
  86. ^ Cod., I., v. 12
  87. ^ Procopius, Historia Arcana, 28;
  88. ^ Nov., cxlvi., 8 February 553
  89. ^ Michael Maas (2005), The Cambridge companion to the Age of Justinian, Cambridge University Press, pp. 16–, ISBN 978-0-521-81746-2, retrieved 18 August 2010 
  90. ^ Cod., I., v. 12.
  91. ^ F. Nau, in Revue de l'orient, ii., 1897, p. 481.
  92. ^ See Procopius, Buildings.
  93. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 189
  94. ^ Brian Croke, "Justinian's Constantinople", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 60–86 (p. 66)
  95. ^ See Croke (2005), p. 364 ff., and Moorhead (1994).
  96. ^ Following a terrible earthquake in 551, the school at Beirut was transferred to Sidon and had no further significance after that date. (Vasiliev (1952), p. 147)
  97. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. I 192.
  98. ^ John F. Haldon, "Economy and Administration", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 28–59 (p. 35)
  99. ^ John Moorhead, Justinian (London/New York 1994), p. 57
  100. ^ Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London 1971), pp. 157–158
  101. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 167
  102. ^ See Moorhead (1994), p. 167; Procopius, Wars, 8.17.1–8
  103. ^ "Justinian's Gold Mines – Mining Technology | TechnoMine". Technology.infomine.com. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  104. ^ Haldon (2005), p. 50
  105. ^ Brown (1971), p. 157
  106. ^ Kenneth G. Holum, "The Classical City in the Sixth Century", in Michael Maas (ed.), Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 99–100
  107. ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 100–101
  108. ^ John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justinian's Armies", in Speculum, vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294–322. The total strength of the Byzantine army under Justinian is estimated at 150,000 men (J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 259).
  109. ^ Brown (1971), p. 158; Moorhead (1994), p. 101
  110. ^ Paradiso, Canto VI verse 10
  111. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, Paradiso, notes on Canto VI.
  112. ^ While he glorified Justinian's achievements in his panegyric and his Wars, Procopius also wrote a hostile account, Anekdota (the so-called Secret History), in which Justinian is depicted as a cruel, venal, and incompetent ruler.
  113. ^ In various Eastern Orthodox Churches, including the Orthodox Church in America, Justinian and his empress Theodora are commemorated on the anniversary of his death, 14 November. Some denominations translate the Julian calendar date to 27 November on the Gregorian calendar. The Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church–Canada also remember Justinian on November 14.
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Justinian I.
aragonés: Chustinián I
asturianu: Xustinianu I
azərbaycanca: I Yustinian
беларуская: Юстыніян I
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Юстыніян I
български: Юстиниан I
bosanski: Justinijan I
brezhoneg: Justinian Iañ
català: Justinià I
čeština: Justinián I.
Cymraeg: Justinianus I
Deutsch: Justinian I.
español: Justiniano I
français: Justinien
Gaeilge: Justinian I
galego: Xustiniano I
Bahasa Indonesia: Yustinianus I
íslenska: Justinianus 1.
italiano: Giustiniano I
Basa Jawa: Justinianus I
ქართული: იუსტინიანე I
қазақша: І Юстиниан
Kiswahili: Justiniani I
Ladino: Justinianus
latviešu: Justiniāns I
lietuvių: Justinianas I
македонски: Јустинијан I
Malagasy: Justinian I
Bahasa Melayu: Justinian I
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျပ်စတီနီယံ၊ (ပထမ)
Nederlands: Justinianus I
Napulitano: Giustiniano I
occitan: Justinian Ier
português: Justiniano
русский: Юстиниан I
sicilianu: Giustinianu I
Simple English: Justinian I
slovenčina: Justinián I.
slovenščina: Justinijan I.
српски / srpski: Јустинијан I
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Justinijan I. Veliki
svenska: Justinianus I
Tagalog: Justiniano I
Türkçe: I. Justinianus
українська: Юстиніан I
Tiếng Việt: Justinianus I
Winaray: Justinian I
Kabɩyɛ: Justinien