^Evans, J. A. S., The Age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial power. pp. 93–94
^John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 9–11.
^Moorhead (1994), pp. 21–22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History 8.3.
^This post seems to have been titular; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–133 (pp. 113–114).
^For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22–24, 63–98, and 101–9.
^See A. D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–33 (pp. 113–14). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of Codex Iustinianus 1.27.1 and Novellae 8.10.2 and 30.11.2.
^Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. Justinian and Theodora. London 1971, 193.)
^See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century" in Michael Maas (ed.). Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 477–509.
^ abJ. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, p. 195.
^John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justinian's Armies", in Speculum, vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294–322. The total strength of the Byzantine army under Justinian is estimated at 150,000 men (J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 259).
^While he glorified Justinian's achievements in his panegyric and his Wars, Procopius also wrote a hostile account, Anekdota (the so-called Secret History), in which Justinian is depicted as a cruel, venal, and incompetent ruler.