Israel | references

References

  1. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  2. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations. 
  3. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017.  Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
  4. ^ "Island nation Vanuatu recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". Israel Hayom. 
  5. ^ Ahern, Raphael (21 May 2018). "Paraguay becomes third country to open embassy in Jerusalem". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 May 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  8. ^ a b "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  9. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  10. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  11. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Human Development Index and its components (Report). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  13. ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
  15. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  16. ^ The Controversial Sovereignty over the City of Jerusalem (22 June 2015, The National Catholic Reporter) "No U.S. president has ever officially acknowledged Israeli sovereignty over any part of Jerusalem (...) The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations."
  17. ^ "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zonea, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law" (Susan M. Akram, Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, Iain Scobbie (eds.), International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace, Routledge, 2010 p.119. )
  18. ^ Jerusalem: Opposition to mooted Trump Israel announcement grows"Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem has never been recognised internationally"
  19. ^ Whither Jerusalem (Lapidot) page 17: "Israeli control in west Jerusalem since 1948 was illegal and most states have not recognized its sovereignty there"
  20. ^ a b c d e Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its stories (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86912-8. 
  21. ^ a b The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K. 3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date."
  22. ^ a b Broshi, Maguen (2001). Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 1-84127-201-9. 
  23. ^ a b "British Museum – Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (605–594 BCE)". Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  24. ^ Jon L. Berquist (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-58983-145-2. 
  25. ^ a b c Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (31 January 2013). The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. OUP USA. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8. 
  26. ^ Abraham Malamat (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6. 
  27. ^ Yohanan Aharoni (15 September 2006). The Jewish People: An Illustrated History. A&C Black. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-8264-1886-9. 
  28. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5. 
  29. ^ a b "Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine". United Nations. 29 November 1947. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  30. ^ a b Morris 2008, p. 66: at 1946 "The League demanded independence for Palestine as a "unitary" state, with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews.", p. 67: at 1947 "The League's Political Committee met in Sofar, Lebanon, on 16–19 September, and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition, which it called "aggression," "without mercy." The League promised them, in line with Bludan, assistance "in manpower, money and equipment" should the United Nations endorse partition.", p. 72: at December 1947 "The League vowed, in very general language, "to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.""
  31. ^ a b Morris 2008, p. 75: "The night of 29–30 November passed in the Yishuv’s settlements in noisy public rejoicing. Most had sat glued to their radio sets broadcasting live from Flushing Meadow. A collective cry of joy went up when the two-thirds mark was achieved: a state had been sanctioned by the international community."
  32. ^ a b c Morris 2008, p. 396: "The immediate trigger of the 1948 War was the November 1947 UN partition resolution. The Zionist movement, except for its fringes, accepted the proposal.", "The Arab war aim, in both stages of the hostilities, was, at a minimum, to abort the emergence of a Jewish state or to destroy it at inception. The Arab states hoped to accomplish this by conquering all or large parts of the territory allotted to the Jews by the United Nations. And some Arab leaders spoke of driving the Jews into the sea and ridding Palestine "of the Zionist plague." The struggle, as the Arabs saw it, was about the fate of Palestine/ the Land of Israel, all of it, not over this or that part of the country. But, in public, official Arab spokesmen often said that the aim of the May 1948 invasion was to "save" Palestine or "save the Palestinians," definitions more agreeable to Western ears."
  33. ^ a b "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  34. ^ a b Gilbert 2005, p. 1
  35. ^ "Debate Map: Israel". 
  36. ^ "Israel, Occupied Territories". 10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1301 (inactive 2018-07-07). 
  37. ^ Cuyckens, Hanne (1 October 2016). "Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza?". Netherlands International Law Review. 63 (3): 275–295. 10.1007/s40802-016-0070-1 – via link.springer.com. 
  38. ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. 
  39. ^ "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". BBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  40. ^ Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  41. ^ Kumaraswamy, P. R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  42. ^
    • Sanger, Andrew (2011). M.N. Schmitt; Louise Arimatsu; Tim McCormack, eds. "The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom Flotilla". Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2010. Springer Science & Business Media. 13: 429. 10.1007/978-90-6704-811-8_14. ISBN 9789067048118. Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status. Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory. However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border. and reserving the right to reenter Gaza at will.
      Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory. Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Troops from the Israeli Defence Force regularly enter pans of the territory and/or deploy missile attacks, drones and sonic bombs into Gaza. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory. Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker. Since 2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry.
      It is this direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza that has led the United Nations, the UN General Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza, International human rights organisations, US Government websites, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and a significant number of legal commentators, to reject the argument that Gaza is no longer occupied.
       
    • International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 9780199657759. Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May 2011, its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza. 
    • Gawerc, Michelle (2012). Prefiguring Peace: Israeli-Palestinian Peacebuilding Partnerships. Lexington Books. p. 44. ISBN 9780739166109. While Israel withdrew from the immediate territory, Israel still controlled all access to and from Gaza through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the airspace. ln addition, Gaza was dependent upon Israel for water electricity sewage communication networks and for its trade (Gisha 2007. Dowty 2008). ln other words, while Israel maintained that its occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and purposes still occupied. 
  43. ^ See for example:
    * Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 0520241940. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times. 
    * "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10. ...longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year 
    * Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393338447. ...longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age 
    * "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885): 207–236. The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN Israel's Unlawfully Prolonged Occupation: Consequences under an Integrated Legal Framework, European Council on Foreign Affairs Policy Brief: "June 2017 marks 50 years of Israel’s belligerent occupation of Palestinian territory, making it the longest occupation in modern history."
  44. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  45. ^ Augustus Richard Norton (2001). Civil society in the Middle East. 2 (2001). BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 90-04-10469-0. 
  46. ^ Rummel 1997, p. 257. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ..., Cyprus, ..., Israel, ..."
  47. ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  48. ^ a b c "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  49. ^ a b Education at a Glance: Israel (Report). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  50. ^ "WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world". Haaretz. 24 May 2009. 
  51. ^ "Popular Opinion". The Palestine Post. Jerusalem. 7 December 1947. p. 1. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. 
  52. ^ "On the Move". Time. New York. 31 May 1948. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2007. 
  53. ^ Levine, Robert A. (7 November 2000). "See Israel as a Jewish Nation-State, More or Less Democratic". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  54. ^ William G. Dever, Did God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005 p.186.
  55. ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley, 'Israel,' in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J,Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995 p.907.
  56. ^ R. L. Ottley, The Religion of Israel: A Historical Sketch, Cambridge University Press, 2013 pp.31–2 note 5.
  57. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 381. ISBN 0-582-05383-8.  entry "Jacob".
  58. ^ "And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." (Hosea 12:5.
  59. ^ Exodus 12:40–41
  60. ^ Exodus 6:16–20
  61. ^ Barton & Bowden 2004, p. 126. "The Merneptah Stele ... is arguably the oldest evidence outside the Bible for the existence of Israel as early as the 13th century BCE."
  62. ^ Noah Rayman (29 September 2014). "Mandatory Palestine: What It Was and Why It Matters". TIME. Retrieved 5 December 2015. 
  63. ^ "The Age of 'Ubeidiya Formation (Jordan Valley, Israel) and the Earliest Hominids in the Levant". Paléorient. 14 (2): 63–65. 10.3406/paleo.1988.4455. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  64. ^ Rincon, Paul (14 October 2015). "Fossil teeth place humans in Asia '20,000 years early'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  65. ^ "The Natufian Culture in the Levant, Threshold to the Origins of Agriculture" (PDF). Evolutionary Anthropology. 6 (5): 159–177. 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1998)6:5<159::AID-EVAN4>3.0.CO;2-7. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  66. ^ Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It?. Eerdmans. pp. 98–99. ISBN 3-927120-37-5. After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [...] archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit. 
  67. ^ Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-21262-X. 
  68. ^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14
  69. ^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  70. ^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  71. ^ Gnuse 1997, pp.28,31[title missing]
  72. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 35.
  73. ^ Bloch-Smith, Elizabeth (2003). "Israelite Ethnicity in Iron I: Archaeology Preserves What Is Remembered and What Is Forgotten in Israel's History". Journal of Biblical Literature. 122 (3): 401–425. 10.2307/3268384. 0021-9231. 3268384. 
  74. ^ Lehman in Vaughn 1992, pp. 156–62.[full citation needed]
  75. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 70.
  76. ^ Miller 2012, p. 98.
  77. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 72.
  78. ^ Miller 2012, p. 99.
  79. ^ Miller 2012, p. 105.
  80. ^ Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The History of Israel in the Biblical Period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199978465. 
  81. ^ a b Kuhrt, Amiele (1995). The Ancient Near East. Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0415167628. 
  82. ^ a b Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (Not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation. 
  83. ^ K. L. Noll, Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, A&C Black, 2012, rev.ed. pp.137ff.
  84. ^ Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources, BRILL, 2000 pp. 275–76: 'They are rather a very specific group among the population of Palestine which bears a name that occurs here for the first time that at a much later stage in Palestine's history bears a substantially different signification.'
  85. ^ The personal name "Israel" appears much earlier, in material from Ebla. Hasel, Michael G. (1 January 1994). "Israel in the Merneptah Stela". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (296): 45–61. 10.2307/1357179. Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. OUP USA. ISBN 9780195183641.  and Meindert Dijkstra (2010). "Origins of Israel between history and ideology". In Becking, Bob; Grabbe, Lester. Between Evidence and Ideology Essays on the History of Ancient Israel read at the Joint Meeting of the Society for Old Testament Study and the Oud Testamentisch Werkgezelschap Lincoln, July 2009. Brill. p. 47. ISBN 9789004187375. As a West Semitic personal name it existed long before it became a tribal or a geographical name. This is not without significance, though is it rarely mentioned. We learn of a maryanu named ysr"il (*Yi¡sr—a"ilu) from Ugarit living in the same period, but the name was already used a thousand years before in Ebla. The word Israel originated as a West Semitic personal name. One of the many names that developed into the name of the ancestor of a clan, of a tribe and finally of a people and a nation. 
  86. ^ Jonathan M Golden,Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, OUP USA, 2009 pp. 3–4.
  87. ^ Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). The Israelites in History and Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780664227272. 
  88. ^ See livius.org, reverse side, line 12.
  89. ^ a b "Second Temple Period (538 BCE. to 70 CE) Persian Rule". Biu.ac.il. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  90. ^ Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. by Achtemeier, etc., Harper & Row, San Francisco, 1985, p.103
  91. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period: Yehud – A History of the Persian Province of Judah v. 1. T & T Clark. p. 355. ISBN 978-0567089984. 
  92. ^ Oppenheimer, A'haron and Oppenheimer, Nili. Between Rome and Babylon: Studies in Jewish Leadership and Society. Mohr Siebeck, 2005, p. 2.
  93. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (1996). Atlas of Jewish History. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-415-08800-8. 
  94. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (18 January 2007). "Palestine". Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  95. ^ Morçöl 2006, p. 304
  96. ^ Judaism in late antiquity, Jacob Neusner, Bertold Spuler, Hady R Idris, BRILL, 2001, p. 155
  97. ^ Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9. 
  98. ^ Allan D. Cooper (2009). The geography of genocide. University Press of America. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7618-4097-8. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  99. ^ Carmel, Alex. The History of Haifa Under Turkish Rule. Haifa: Pardes, 2002 (ISBN 965-7171-05-9), pp. 16–17
  100. ^ Moshe Gil (1992). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. p. 829. ISBN 9780521404372. Retrieved 17 May 2015. Haifa was taken [...] in August 1100 or June 1101, according to Muslim sources which contradict one another. Albert of Aachen does not mention the date in a clear manner either. From what he says, it appears that it was mainly the Jewish inhabitants of the city who defended the fortress of Haifa. In his rather strange Latin style, he mentions that there was a Jewish population in Haifa, and that they fought bravely within the walls of the city. He explains that the Jews there were protected people of the Muslims (the Fatimids). They fought side by side with units of the Fatimid army, striking back at Tancred's army from above the walls of the citadel (... Judaei civis comixtis Sarracenorum turmis) until the Crusaders overcame them and they were forced to abandon the walls. The Muslims and the Jews then managed to escape from the fortress with their lives, while the rest of the population fled the city en masse. Whoever remained was slaughtered, and huge quantities of spoils were taken. [...] [Note #3: Albert of Aachen (Albericus, Albertus Aquensis), Historia Hierosolymitanae Expeditionis, in: RHC (Occ.), IV. p. 523; etc.] 
  101. ^ Irven M. Resnick (1 June 2012). Marks of Distinctions: Christian Perceptions of Jews in the High Middle Ages. CUA Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-8132-1969-1. citizens of the Jewish race, who lived in the city by the favour and consent of the king of Egypt in return for payment of tribute, got on the walls bearing arms and put up a very stubborn defence, until the Christians, weighed down by various blows over the period of two weeks, absolutely despaired and held back their hands from any attack. [...] the Jewish citizens, mixed with Saracen troops, at once fought back manfully,... and counter-attacked. [Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana 7.23, ed. and transl. Susan B. Edgington (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007), 516 and 521.] 
  102. ^ Joshua Prawer. The Jews of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. pp. 34–40. 
  103. ^ Sefer HaCharedim Mitzvat Tshuva Chapter 3. Maimonides established a yearly holiday for himself and his sons, 6 Cheshvan, commemorating the day he went up to pray on the Temple Mount, and another, 9 Cheshvan, commemorating the day he merited to pray at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron.
  104. ^ Abraham P. Bloch (1987). "Sultan Saladin Opens Jerusalem to Jews". One a day: an anthology of Jewish historical anniversaries for every day of the year. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-88125-108-1. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  105. ^ Benzion Dinur (1974). "From Bar Kochba's Revolt to the Turkish Conquest". In David Ben-Gurion. The Jews in their Land. Aldus Books. p. 217. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  106. ^ Geoffrey Hindley (28 February 2007). Saladin: hero of Islam. Pen & Sword Military. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1-84415-499-9. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  107. ^ Alex Carmel; Peter Schäfer; Yossi Ben-Artzi (1990). The Jewish settlement in Palestine, 634–1881. L. Reichert. p. 31. ISBN 978-3-88226-479-1. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  108. ^ Samson ben Abraham of Sens, Jewish Encyclopedia.
  109. ^ Moshe Lichtman (September 2006). Eretz Yisrael in the Parshah: The Centrality of the Land of Israel in the Torah. Devora Publishing. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-932687-70-5. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  110. ^ a b Kramer, Gudrun (2008). A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel. Princeton University Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-691-11897-0. 
  111. ^ M. Sharon (2010). "Al Khalil". Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Koninklijke Brill NV. 
  112. ^ International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa by Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, pp. 336–339
  113. ^ Twenty centuries of Jewish life in the Holy Land: the forgotten generations. Israel Economist. p. 48. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  114. ^ Fannie Fern Andrews (February 1976). The Holy Land under mandate. Hyperion Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-88355-304-6. Retrieved 25 December 2011. 
  115. ^ "The Covenant of the League of Nations". Article 22. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  116. ^ "Mandate for Palestine," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 11, p. 862, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  117. ^ Rosenzweig 1997, p. 1 "Zionism, the urge of the Jewish people to return to Palestine, is almost as ancient as the Jewish diaspora itself. Some Talmudic statements ... Almost a millennium later, the poet and philosopher Yehuda Halevi ... In the 19th century ..."
  118. ^ a b Geoffrey Wigoder, G.G. (ed.). "Return to Zion". The New Encyclopedia of Judaism (via Answers.Com). The Jerusalem Publishing House. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  119. ^ "An invention called 'the Jewish people'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  120. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 2. "Jews sought a new homeland here after their expulsions from Spain (1492) ..."
  121. ^ Eisen, Yosef (2004). Miraculous journey: a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present. Targum Press. p. 700. ISBN 1-56871-323-1. 
  122. ^ Morgenstern, Arie (2006). Hastening redemption: Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-19-530578-4. 
  123. ^ "Jewish and Non-Jewish Population of Palestine-Israel (1517–2004)". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  124. ^ Barnai, Jacob (1992). The Jews in Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: Under the Patronage of the Istanbul committee of Officials for Palestine. University Alabama Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-8173-0572-7. 
  125. ^ a b c d "Immigration to Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 March 2012.  The source provides information on the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Aliyot in their respective articles. The White Paper leading to Aliyah Bet is discussed "Aliyah During World War II and its Aftermath". 
  126. ^ Kornberg 1993 "How did Theodor Herzl, an assimilated German nationalist in the 1880s, suddenly in the 1890s become the founder of Zionism?"
  127. ^ Herzl 1946, p. 11
  128. ^ "Chapter One". The Jewish Agency for Israel1. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 
  129. ^ Stein 2003, p. 88. "As with the First Aliyah, most Second Aliyah migrants were non-Zionist orthodox Jews ..."
  130. ^ Romano 2003, p. 30
  131. ^ Macintyre, Donald (26 May 2005). "The birth of modern Israel: A scrap of paper that changed history". The Independent. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  132. ^ Yapp, M.E. (1987). The Making of the Modern Near East 1792–1923. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 290. ISBN 0-582-49380-3. 
  133. ^ Schechtman, Joseph B. (2007). "Jewish Legion". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 304. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  134. ^ Scharfstein 1996, p. 269. "During the First and Second Aliyot, there were many Arab attacks against Jewish settlements ... In 1920, Hashomer was disbanded and Haganah ("The Defense") was established."
  135. ^ "League of Nations: The Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. 24 July 1922. Retrieved 27 August 2007. 
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Other Languages
Acèh: Israèl
Адыгэбзэ: Исраел
адыгабзэ: Исраил
Afrikaans: Israel
Alemannisch: Israel
አማርኛ: እስራኤል
Ænglisc: Israhēl
العربية: إسرائيل
aragonés: Israel
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ
armãneashti: Israel
arpetan: Israèl
অসমীয়া: ইজৰাইল
asturianu: Israel
Avañe'ẽ: Israel
azərbaycanca: İsrail
تۆرکجه: ايسرائيل
bamanankan: Israil
বাংলা: ইসরায়েল
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-sek-lia̍t
башҡортса: Израиль
беларуская: Ізраіль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ізраіль
भोजपुरी: इजराइल
Bikol Central: Israel
български: Израел
Boarisch: Israel
bosanski: Izrael
brezhoneg: Israel
буряад: Израиль
català: Israel
Чӑвашла: Израиль
Cebuano: Israel
čeština: Izrael
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Israel
chiShona: Israel
chiTumbuka: Israel
corsu: Israele
Cymraeg: Israel
dansk: Israel
davvisámegiella: Israel
Deutsch: Israel
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްރާއީލު
dolnoserbski: Israel
eesti: Iisrael
Ελληνικά: Ισραήλ
español: Israel
Esperanto: Israelo
estremeñu: Israel
euskara: Israel
فارسی: اسرائیل
Fiji Hindi: Israel
føroyskt: Ísrael
français: Israël
Frysk: Israel
Gaeilge: Iosrael
Gaelg: Israel
Gagauz: İsrail
Gàidhlig: Iosrael
galego: Israel
贛語: 以色列
Gĩkũyũ: Israel
ગુજરાતી: ઈઝરાયલ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐍃𐍂𐌰𐌴𐌻
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इस्राएल
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yî-set-lie̍t
한국어: 이스라엘
Hausa: Isra'ila
Hawaiʻi: ʻIseraʻela
Հայերեն: Իսրայել
हिन्दी: इज़राइल
hornjoserbsce: Israel
hrvatski: Izrael
Ido: Israel
Igbo: Israel
Ilokano: Israel
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইসরাইল
Bahasa Indonesia: Israel
interlingua: Israel
Interlingue: Israel
Ирон: Израиль
isiZulu: Isreyili
íslenska: Ísrael
italiano: Israele
עברית: ישראל
Basa Jawa: Israèl
kalaallisut: Israel
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್
Kapampangan: Israel
ქართული: ისრაელი
kaszëbsczi: Izrael
қазақша: Израиль
kernowek: Ysrael
Kinyarwanda: Isirayeli
Kiswahili: Israel
коми: Израиль
Kongo: Israel
Kreyòl ayisyen: Izrayèl
kurdî: Îsraêl
Кыргызча: Асрайыл
Ladino: Israel
лезги: Израиль
لۊری شومالی: اٛسرائيل
Latina: Israël
latviešu: Izraēla
Lëtzebuergesch: Israel
lietuvių: Izraelis
Ligure: Isræ
Limburgs: Israël
lingála: Israel
Livvinkarjala: Izrail
la .lojban.: brogu'e
lumbaart: Israel
magyar: Izrael
मैथिली: इजरायल
македонски: Израел
Malagasy: Isiraely
മലയാളം: ഇസ്രയേൽ
Malti: Iżrael
Māori: Iharaira
मराठी: इस्रायल
მარგალური: ისრაელი
مصرى: اسرائيل
مازِرونی: اسرائیل
Bahasa Melayu: Israel
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ī-sáik-liĕk
Mirandés: Eisrael
мокшень: Израиль
монгол: Израиль
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အစ္စရေးနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Israel
Dorerin Naoero: Iteraer
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Isireli
Nederlands: Israël
Nedersaksies: Israël
नेपाली: इजरायल
नेपाल भाषा: इजरायल
日本語: イスラエル
Napulitano: Israele
нохчийн: Израиль
Nordfriisk: Israel
Norfuk / Pitkern: Esrail
norsk: Israel
norsk nynorsk: Israel
Novial: Israel
occitan: Israèl
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇସ୍ରାଏଲ
Oromoo: Isiraa'el
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Isroil
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਜ਼ਰਾਇਲ
पालि: इस्रैल
Pälzisch: Israel
پنجابی: اسرائیل
Papiamentu: Israel
پښتو: اسرائيل
Patois: Izrel
Перем Коми: Исраэль
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីស្រាអែល
Piemontèis: Israel
Tok Pisin: Israel
Plattdüütsch: Israel
polski: Izrael
Ποντιακά: Ισραήλ
português: Israel
Qaraqalpaqsha: İzrail
qırımtatarca: İsrail
Ripoarisch: Israel
română: Israel
Romani: Israel
Runa Simi: Israyil
русиньскый: Ізраіль
русский: Израиль
саха тыла: Исраил
Gagana Samoa: Isalaeru
संस्कृतम्: इजराइल
sardu: Israele
Scots: Israel
Seeltersk: Israel
Sesotho sa Leboa: Israel
shqip: Izraeli
sicilianu: Israeli
Simple English: Israel
SiSwati: Ka-Israyeli
slovenčina: Izrael
slovenščina: Izrael
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їꙁдраил҄ь
ślůnski: Izrael
Soomaaliga: Israaiil
کوردی: ئیسرائیل
Sranantongo: Israel
српски / srpski: Израел
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Izrael
Basa Sunda: Israél
suomi: Israel
svenska: Israel
Tagalog: Israel
தமிழ்: இசுரேல்
Taqbaylit: Israyil
tarandíne: Isdraele
татарча/tatarça: Исраил
తెలుగు: ఇజ్రాయిల్
tetun: Izraél
тоҷикӣ: Исроил
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᏏᎵᏱ
ತುಳು: ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್
Türkçe: İsrail
Türkmençe: Ysraýyl
удмурт: Израиль
українська: Ізраїль
اردو: اسرائیل
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسرائىلىيە
Vahcuengh: Israel
vèneto: Israełe
vepsän kel’: Izrail'
Tiếng Việt: Israel
Volapük: Yisraelän
Võro: Iisrael
文言: 以色列
West-Vlams: Israël
Winaray: Israel
Wolof: Israayil
吴语: 以色列
ייִדיש: ישראל
Yorùbá: Ísráẹ́lì
粵語: 以色列
Zazaki: İsrail
Zeêuws: Israël
žemaitėška: Izraelis
中文: 以色列
डोटेली: इजरायल
ГӀалгӀай: Жугтече
Kabɩyɛ: Izrɛɛlɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Israel