Henry VIII of England | marriage to anne of cleves

Marriage to Anne of Cleves

Having considered the matter, Cromwell, now Earl of Essex, suggested Anne, the 25-year-old sister of the Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England, for the duke fell between Lutheranism and Catholicism.[110] Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the king.[111] Despite speculation that Holbein painted her in an overly flattering light, it is more likely that the portrait was accurate; Holbein remained in favour at court.[112] After seeing Holbein's portrait, and urged on by the complimentary description of Anne given by his courtiers, the 49-year-old king agreed to wed Anne.[113] However, it was not long before Henry wished to annul the marriage so he could marry another.[114][115] Anne did not argue, and confirmed that the marriage had never been consummated.[116] Anne's previous betrothal to the Duke of Lorraine's son Francis provided further grounds for the annulment.[117] The marriage was subsequently dissolved, and Anne received the title of "The King's Sister", two houses and a generous allowance.[116] It was soon clear that Henry had fallen for the 17-year-old Catherine Howard, the Duke of Norfolk's niece, the politics of which worried Cromwell, for Norfolk was a political opponent.[118]

Shortly after, the religious reformers (and protégés of Cromwell) Robert Barnes, William Jerome and Thomas Garret were burned as heretics.[116] Cromwell, meanwhile, fell out of favour although it is unclear exactly why, for there is little evidence of differences of domestic or foreign policy. Despite his role, he was never formally accused of being responsible for Henry's failed marriage.[119] Cromwell was now surrounded by enemies at court, with Norfolk also able to draw on his niece's position.[118] Cromwell was charged with treason, selling export licences, granting passports, and drawing up commissions without permission, and may also have been blamed for the failure of the foreign policy that accompanied the attempted marriage to Anne.[120][121] He was subsequently attainted and beheaded.[119]

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