Harold Macmillan | references

References

  1. ^ Middleton 1997, pp. 422–23.
  2. ^ Middleton 1997, p. 422.
  3. ^ Peter Hennessy, Having It So Good: Britain in the Fifties (London: Allen Lane, 2006), pp. 533–34.
  4. ^ Richard Lamb, The Macmillan Years 1957–1963: The Emerging Truth (London: John Murray, 1995), pp. 14–15.
  5. ^ Leitch, David (8 December 1996), "The spy who rocked a world of privilege", The Independent, London, archived from the original on 4 August 2012
  6. ^ a b Wintour, Patrick; Glover, Julian (14 February 2005). "Lord Callaghan sets record". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Prime minister between 1976 and 1979, Lord Callaghan is now one day older than Harold Macmillan was when he died in December 1986, aged 92.
  7. ^ Fisher 1982, p. 2.
  8. ^ Horne 2008, p. 9.
  9. ^ Campbell 2009, p. 245
  10. ^ "Winds of Change" speech, minute 29:04. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Horne 2008, p. 13.
  12. ^ Charles Williams, Harold Macmillan (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2009), p. 15.
  13. ^ "Mr T.S. Morton". The Times. 23 January 1962.
  14. ^ a b Horne 1988, p. 15
  15. ^ Horne 2008, p. 16.
  16. ^ Simon Ball, The Guardsmen, Harold Macmillan, Three Friends and the World They Made, (London, Harper Collins), 2004, p. 19.
  17. ^ Williams, Macmillan, pp. 19–26.
  18. ^ a b c Supermac. Author: D. R. Thorpe. Publisher: Chatto & Windus. Published: 9 September 2010. Retrieved: 1 February 2014.
  19. ^ Horne 1988, p. 22
  20. ^ Thorpe 2010, p. 41
  21. ^ Supermac. Author: D. R. Thorpe. Publisher: Chatto & Windus. Published: 9 September 2010. Retrieved: 29 January 2014.
  22. ^ Thorpe 2011, pp. 47–48
  23. ^ "No. 28979". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 November 1914. p. 9505.
  24. ^ "No. 29500". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 March 1916. p. 2533.
  25. ^ "No. 29376". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 November 1915. p. 11582.
  26. ^ MacMillan 2010, p. 89
  27. ^ Lawton, John (1992), 1963: Five Hundred Days, Sevenoaks: Hodder and Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-50846-9
  28. ^ Ball Guardsmen, p. 64.
  29. ^ Thorpe 2010, p. 58
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Spartacus Educational website biography.
  31. ^ Campbell 2009, pp. 246–47
  32. ^ Williams 2008, p. 31
  33. ^ Horne 2008, p. 49.
  34. ^ Thorpe 2010, pp. 42–45 "Sent Down" is a university term for "expelled"
  35. ^ Williams 2008, p. 49
  36. ^ Thorpe 2010, p. 62
  37. ^ Macmillan 1966, pp. 107–108 This period saw disturbances amongst British troops in France, which was of grave worry to the Government as the Russian and German revolutions had been accompanied by army mutinies. In the end the crisis was resolved by giving priority for demobilisation to men who had served the longest.
  38. ^ Horne 2008, p. 52.
  39. ^ Williams 2008, p. 55
  40. ^ "No. 31958". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 June 1920. p. 7073. The London Gazette states that he held and retained the rank of lieutenant.
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  42. ^ Horne 1989, p. 155
  43. ^ Thorpe 2010, 2467, 2477.
  44. ^ Thorpe 2010, p. 95. Thorpe points out that divorce still caused muttering as late as the 1950s. Walter Monckton's divorce may have cost him promotion to the highest legal positions of Lord Chief Justice and Lord Chancellor, while Anthony Eden faced criticism for divorcing and remarrying, and talk that he was unfit to make ecclesiastical appointments.
  45. ^ Parris, Matthew (1997), Great Parliamentary Scandals: Four Centuries of Calumny, Smear & Innuendo, London: Robson Books, pp. 98–104, ISBN 1-86105-152-2
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  47. ^ Campbell 2009, p. 248.
  48. ^ Thorpe 2010.
  49. ^ Thorpe 2010, 14116–14121.
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  54. ^ Horne 1988, p. 69 at that time candidates were often expected to fund their own election campaigns
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  56. ^ a b Fisher 1982, pp. 32–33
  57. ^ a b Horne 1988, p. 243
  58. ^ a b c Horne 1988, p. 103
  59. ^ Horne 1988, p. 100
  60. ^ Betts, Lewis David (3 April 2018). "Harold Macmillan and appeasement: implications for the future study of Macmillan as a foreign policy actor". Contemporary British History. 32 (2): 169–189. 10.1080/13619462.2017.1401475. 1361-9462.
  61. ^ Campbell 2009, p. 249
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  64. ^ Horne 1988, p. 119
  65. ^ Horne 1988, pp. 134–35
  66. ^ Horne 1988, p. 139
  67. ^ Campbell 2009, p. 252
  68. ^ Fisher 1982, pp. 78–79.
  69. ^ Harold Macmillan, The Blast of War, 1939–45 (London: Macmillan, 1967), p. 161.
  70. ^ Fisher 1982, p. 82.
  71. ^ Campbell 2009, p. 254
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  75. ^ Horne 1988, p. 170
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  81. ^ Horne 1988, pp. 230–40
  82. ^ In 1947 the US would take over Britain's role as "protector" of Greece and Turkey, to keep the Soviets out of the Mediterranean, the so-called "Truman Doctrine"
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  103. ^ Horne 1989, pp. 244–45
  104. ^ Campbell 2009, pp. 249, 254 Campbell also suggests that Harold Wilson's image change during Macmillan's premiership from "boring young statistician into lovable Yorkshire comic" was made in conscious imitation of Macmillan
  105. ^ Horne 1989, p. 122
  106. ^ a b Fisher 1982, p. 150.
  107. ^ Edmund Dell, The Chancellors: A History of the Chancellors of the Exchequer, 1945–90 (1997) pp. 207–22, covers his term as Chancellor.
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  109. ^ Campbell 2009, pp. 264–65
  110. ^ 18 April 1956: Macmillan unveils premium bond scheme Archived 6 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 'On This Day 1950–2005'.
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  112. ^ Harold Macmillan; Unflappable master of the middle way Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, obituary in The Guardian, by Vernon Bogdanor; 30 December 1986
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  118. ^ Beckett 2006, pp. 73–74.
  119. ^ a b Diane B. Kunz, The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis (1991) pp. 130–40
  120. ^ Howard 1987, p. 237
  121. ^ Williams, Harold Macmillan (2009) p. 267
  122. ^ Thorpe 2010, p. 356
  123. ^ Howard 1987, p. 239
  124. ^ Howard 1987, p. 242
  125. ^ Thorpe 2010, pp. 352–53 Eisenhower said these words in a meeting with Treasury Secretary Humphrey (who was pro-Butler), Under Secretary of State Hoover and Staff Secretary Andrew Goodpaster. It is unclear whether there was direct pressure from the US Administration for Macmillan to be chosen, or rather whether being the candidate best placed to rebuild bridges with the Americans was simply another reason why leading Conservatives preferred him to Butler. Published accounts do not agree about the date of the meeting. Williams (2008, p. 270) lists it as happening on 20 November, a date repeated in Michael Jago's 2015 biography of Rab Butler. Macmillan's other recent biographer D. R. Thorpe gives it as 24 December, presumably an error as the footnote refers to Eisenhower's papers for November 1956, while in his biography of Anthony Eden (2003, p. 539) Thorpe gives it as 24 November.
  126. ^ Howard 1987, pp. 240–41
  127. ^ Thorpe 2010, pp. 353–54
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  132. ^ Thorpe 2010, pp. 361–62
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  191. ^ the "soundings" and the accompanying political intrigues are discussed in detail in Rab Butler's biography
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беларуская: Гаральд Мак-Мілан
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粵語: 麥美倫