Francis Poulenc | notes, references and sources

Notes, references and sources

Notes

  1. ^ "...y a en lui du moine et du voyou." [4] "Voyou" has no exact English translation, and as well as "naughty boy", [5] it has been variously rendered as "ragamuffin or street-urchin", [6] "guttersnipe", [7] "bad boy", [8] "bounder", [9] "hooligan", [10] and "rascal". [11]
  2. ^ Jenny Poulenc's favourites ranged from Mozart, Schumann and Chopin to popular sentimental pieces by composers such as Anton Rubinstein. [12] Poulenc dedicated his opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1956) to "the memory of my mother, who revealed music to me". [13]
  3. ^ The works were Trois mouvements perpétuels, Trois pastorales and Suite pour piano. [20]
  4. ^ The Poulenc scholar Carl B Schmidt lists two works earlier than Rapsodie nègre, unperformed and known to have been destroyed by the composer: "Processional pour la crémation d'un mandarin" (Processional for the Cremation of a Mandarin) (1914) and Préludes (1916) both for solo piano; [25] several later pieces composed between 1917 and 1919 were also destroyed or lost. [26]
  5. ^ A pun on the English colloquial expression "leg-pulling" – playful, humorous deception. [28]
  6. ^ Poulenc recalled Ravel as saying that Saint-Saëns was a genius, Schumann was mediocre and much inferior to Mendelssohn, late Debussy (such as Jeux) was poor, and Chabrier's orchestration incompetent. [31] Chabrier's music was one of Poulenc's particular enthusiasms. He said in the 1950s, "Ah! Chabrier, I love him as one loves a father! An indulgent father, always merry, his pockets full of tasty tit-bits. Chabrier's music is a treasure-house you could never exhaust. I just could not do without it. It consoles me on my darkest days, because you know ... I am a sad man – who likes to laugh, as do all sad men." [32]
  7. ^ In the original, Poulenc's quotation of Satie's words is given as, "Ce c... de Ravel, c'est stupide tout ce qu'il dit!" [33]
  8. ^ Poulenc commented in 1958 how much he had come to admire Ravel and that he had been glad to be able to show it, not only in words, but as a pianist, through his interpretations of Ravel's works. [35]
  9. ^ Milhaud's view has been questioned by later writers. In Music & Letters in 1957 Vera Rašín cast doubt on the statement that Collet's choice was arbitrary, surmising that the label "Les Six" was carefully planned by Jean Cocteau, who had taken the group under his wing. [41] A similar view was put forward by the musicologist Robert Orledge in 2003. [42]
  10. ^ Koechlin, like Ravel, was a pupil of Gabriel Fauré, but Poulenc did not share their love of Fauré's music: the Fauré scholar Jean-Michel Nectoux comments that Poulenc's aversion seems strange because of all the members of Les Six, Poulenc "is the nearest to Fauré in the limpid clarity and singing quality of his own writing, in his charm". [48]
  11. ^ In addition to "Epitaphe", other Poulenc works were dedicated to Linossier or her memory are the Sonata for Horn, Trumpet and Trombone (1922), Ce doux petit visage (1939), Les Animaux modèles (1941) and "Voyage" from Calligrammes (1948). [62]
  12. ^ Bernac's timbre and sensitive musicianship considerably influenced Poulenc's compositional style in his mélodies, to a degree comparable with the musical relationship between Poulenc's friends the tenor Peter Pears and the composer Benjamin Britten, although unlike their English counterparts Poulenc and Bernac were partners only professionally. [70] [72]
  13. ^ Poulenc recalled later that they performed only French songs, but his recollection was inaccurate: German songs, notably those of Schumann, were included in some programmes. [80] [81]
  14. ^ This song, "You shall not have Alsace and Lorraine", was a popular patriotic French ditty dating from the Franco-Prussian War, when the Germans defeated France and annexed much of Alsace and Lorraine. France regained them after the First World War, but at the time of Les Animaux modèles they were once again under German control. [83]
  15. ^ The piece was not produced in the US until 1953, and did not reach Britain until 1958, when Britten and Pears presented it at the Aldeburgh Festival. [93] It remains by a considerable margin the least popular of Poulenc's three operas; Dialogues des Carmélites and La Voix humaine each received more than four times as many productions worldwide between 2012 and 2014. [94]
  16. ^ Despite their musical differences, Poulenc and Boulez maintained amicable personal relations: exchanges of friendly letters are recorded in Poulenc's published correspondence. [97]
  17. ^ In 1949, thrilled by a new American recording of his 1936 Mass conducted by Robert Shaw, Poulenc exclaimed, "At last the world will know that I am a serious composer. [69]
  18. ^ The illness is variously reported as pleurisy and lung cancer. [69] [102]
  19. ^ "grrrrrande" in Polulenc's original French [109]
  20. ^ There was a joke in musical circles at the time that Poulenc was writing his solo opera for Maria Callas, who was known for her reluctance to share the spotlight with anybody, but in fact there was never any thought that Callas, or anyone apart from Duval, should play the lead. [110]
  21. ^ In a letter to Milhaud in 1950 Poulenc, who had earlier singled out Messiaen as one of France's most promising young composers, [119] privately compared Messiaen's recent compositions to "holy water out of a bidet". [120]
  22. ^ "Je souhaite une musique saine, claire et robuste, une musique aussi franchement française que celle de Strawinsky est slave." [124]
  23. ^ At the time of Poulenc's comments there were only twelve: the first set, numbers 1–10, date from the 1920s and the second set, numbers 11 and 12, from the 1930s; numbers 13–15 were written in 1958–59. [3]
  24. ^ The List of compositions by Francis Poulenc gives dates for the major revisions
  25. ^ An early violin sonata was performed at a Huyghens concert in 1919 but it was unpublished and is now lost. [138]
  26. ^ Hell notes that Poulenc reused some of the themes in his 1947 Sinfonietta. [139]
  27. ^ Hell lists the piece under the separate heading of "Works for Chamber Orchestra" along with the occasional work Two Marches and an Intermezzo (1937). [141]
  28. ^ A 2013 CD set of the complete songs occupies four full discs and plays for more than five hours in total. [144]

References

  1. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 3
  2. ^ Cayez, p. 18
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Chimènes, Myriam and Roger Nichols. "Poulenc, Francis", Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 24 August 2014 (subscription required)
  4. ^ Roy, p. 60
  5. ^ Poulenc (2014), p. 247
  6. ^ Burton, p. 15
  7. ^ Buckland and Chimènes, p. 85
  8. ^ Ivry, p. 8
  9. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 105
  10. ^ Walker, Lynne. "The alchemical brother", The Independent, 27 January 1999
  11. ^ Hewett, Ivan. "Part monk, part rascal", The Daily Telegraph, 23 March 2013
  12. ^ a b Hell, p. 2
  13. ^ Quoted in Schmidt (2001), p. 6
  14. ^ Hell, pp. 2–3
  15. ^ Schmidt (2001), pp. 6 and 23
  16. ^ Poulenc (1978), p. 98
  17. ^ Schmidt (2001), pp. 26–27
  18. ^ Poulenc (1978), p. 37
  19. ^ Quoted in Schmidt (2001), p. 20
  20. ^ a b Schmidt (2001), p. 21
  21. ^ Hell, pp. 3–4
  22. ^ a b Hell, p. 4
  23. ^ Schmidt (2001), pp. 38–39
  24. ^ Romain, p. 48
  25. ^ Schmidt (1995), pp. 11–12
  26. ^ Schmidt (1995), p. 525
  27. ^ Harding, p. 13
  28. ^ "leg-pull", Oxford English Dictionary, retrieved 20 September 2014 (subscription required)
  29. ^ Machart, p. 18
  30. ^ Poulenc (1978), p. 138
  31. ^ a b c Nichols, p. 117
  32. ^ Poulenc (1978), p. 54
  33. ^ Poulenc (1963), p. 75
  34. ^ Nichols, pp. 117–118
  35. ^ a b c "Les Dialogues de Poulenc: The Composer on his Opera", The Times, 26 February 1958, p. 3
  36. ^ a b Hell, pp. 9–10
  37. ^ "Francis Poulenc", The Guardian, 31 January 1963, p. 7
  38. ^ Sams, Jeremy. " Poulenc, Francis", The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 24 August 2014 (subscription required)
  39. ^ Hell, pp. 13–14
  40. ^ Quoted in Hell, pp. 14–15
  41. ^ a b Rašín, Vera. "'Les Six' and Jean Cocteau", Music & Letters, April 1957, pp. 164–169 (subscription required)
  42. ^ Orledge, pp. 234–235
  43. ^ Hell, p. 13
  44. ^ Hell, pp. 13 and 93; and Schmidt (2001), p. 451
  45. ^ Hinson, p. 882
  46. ^ Desgraupes, p. 5; and Hell, p. 19
  47. ^ Hell, p. 21
  48. ^ Nectoux, p. 434
  49. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 144
  50. ^ Newman, Ernest. "The week in music", The Manchester Guardian, 28 April 1921, p. 5
  51. ^ Hell, p. 23
  52. ^ Hell, pp. 24–28
  53. ^ a b Schmidt (2001), p. 136
  54. ^ Hell, pp. 31–32
  55. ^ Canarina, p. 341
  56. ^ a b Burton, p. 37
  57. ^ Ivry, p. 68
  58. ^ a b Ivry, p. 74
  59. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 154
  60. ^ Ivry, p. 86; and Schmidt (2001), p. 461
  61. ^ Johnson, p. 140
  62. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 480
  63. ^ Hell, pp. 38–43
  64. ^ "A Television Transmission by the Baird Process will take place during this programme", Genome – Radio Times, 1923–2009, BBC, retrieved 17 October 2014
  65. ^ Schmidt p. 476
  66. ^ Poulenc (2014), p. 233
  67. ^ a b c d e f Thibodeau, Ralph. "The Sacred Music of Francis Poulenc: A Centennial Tribute", Sacred Music, Volume 126, Number 2, Summer 1999, pp. 5–19 (subscription required)
  68. ^ Hell, p. 48
  69. ^ a b c d e f g Moore, Christopher. "Constructing the Monk: Francis Poulenc and the Post-War Context", Intersections, Volume 32, Number 1, 2012, pp. 203–230 (subscription required)
  70. ^ a b "Bernac, Pierre", Grove Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 5 October 2014 (subscription required)
  71. ^ Ivry, p. 96
  72. ^ a b Johnson, p. 15
  73. ^ Poulenc (1991), p. 11
  74. ^ Doctor, pp. 69, 74, 78, 147, 226, 248, 343, 353–354, 370–371, 373, 380 and 382
  75. ^ Poulenc (2014), p. 141
  76. ^ "N.Y. Musical Tributes to Francis Poulenc", The Times, 17 April 1963, p. 14
  77. ^ a b Hell, pp. 60–61
  78. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 266
  79. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 268
  80. ^ a b Fancourt, Daisy. "Les Six", Music and the Holocaust, retrieved 6 October 2014
  81. ^ Ivry, p. 119
  82. ^ Poulenc (2014), pp. 207–208
  83. ^ a b Simeone Nigel. "Making Music in Occupied Paris", The Musical Times, Spring, 2006, pp. 23–50 (subscription required)
  84. ^ Schmidt, p. 284
  85. ^ "Broadcasting Review", The Manchester Guardian, 24 March 1945, p. 3
  86. ^ Hell, p. 67
  87. ^ Mann, William. "Poulenc's Choral Masterpiece", The Times, 8 March 1963, p. 15
  88. ^ "Court Circular", The Times, 5 January 1945, p. 6
  89. ^ "Albert Hall", The Times, 8 January 1945, p. 8
  90. ^ "National Gallery Concert", The Times, 10 January 1945, p. 8; and Schmidt (2001), p. 304
  91. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 303
  92. ^ "The Paris Boat-Train", The Manchester Guardian, 16 January 1945, p. 4
  93. ^ a b c d Sams, p. 282
  94. ^ "Francis Poulenc", Operabase, retrieved 6 October 2014
  95. ^ Schmidt (2001), pp. 291 and 352
  96. ^ Poulenc (1991), p. 273
  97. ^ Poulenc (1994), pp. 818, 950 and 1014
  98. ^ a b Hell, p. 74
  99. ^ Ivry, p. 170
  100. ^ Hell, pp. 97 and 100
  101. ^ Hell, pp. 78–79
  102. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 404
  103. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 397
  104. ^ Burton, p. 42
  105. ^ Hell, pp. 97 and 104
  106. ^ Wheeler, Mike. "Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) Flute Sonata (1957)", Scottish Chamber Orchestra, retrieved 22 October 2014
  107. ^ a b c "Biography", Francis Poulenc: musicien français 1899–1963, retrieved 22 October 2014
  108. ^ Ivry p. 194 and Schmidt (2001), p. 477
  109. ^ a b Poulenc 1994, letter 917, quoted in Moore, Christopher. "Constructing the Monk: Francis Poulenc and the Post-War Context", Intersections, Volume 32, Number 1, 2012, pp. 203–230
  110. ^ a b c Sams, p. 283
  111. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 446
  112. ^ Nichols, Roger. "Views of Chabrier", The Musical Times, July 1983, p. 428 (subscription required)
  113. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 463
  114. ^ Hell, p. 87
  115. ^ a b Keck, p. 18
  116. ^ a b "Francis Poulenc", The Musical Times, March 1963, p. 205 (subscription required)
  117. ^ Schmidt, p. 342
  118. ^ Poulenc (2014), p. 36
  119. ^ Langham Smith, Richard. "More Fauré than Ferneyhough", The Musical Times, November 1992, pp. 555–557 (subscription required)
  120. ^ Chimènes, p. 171
  121. ^ Hell, pp. 87–88
  122. ^ Buckland and Chimènes, p. 6
  123. ^ a b c d e Larner, Gerald. "Maître with the light touch", The Times, 6 January 1999, p. 30
  124. ^ a b Landormy, Paul. 162
  125. ^ Delamarche, p. 4
  126. ^ Hell, p. 64
  127. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 275
  128. ^ Delamarche, p. 6
  129. ^ Hell, p. 88
  130. ^ Daniel, p. 165
  131. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 182
  132. ^ a b Ledin, Marina and Victor. "Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) Piano Music, Volume 3", Naxos Music Library, retrieved 22 October 2014
  133. ^ a b Ledin, Marina and Victor. "Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) Piano Music, Volume 1", Naxos Music Library, retrieved 22 October 2014
  134. ^ Bush, p. 11
  135. ^ Hell, pp. 100–102
  136. ^ Keck, p. 285
  137. ^ Hell, p. 59
  138. ^ Schmidt (1995), p. 29
  139. ^ Hell, p. 73
  140. ^ Daniel, p. 122; Hell, p. 65; and Schmidt (2001), pp. 282–283 and 455
  141. ^ Hell, p. 104
  142. ^ Schmidt (2001) p. 148
  143. ^ Schmidt (2001), p. 419
  144. ^ Johnson, pp. 4–10
  145. ^ Johnson, p. 13
  146. ^ Hell, pp. 93–97
  147. ^ a b Clements, Andrew. "Poulenc: The Complete Songs – review", The Guardian, 17 October 2013
  148. ^ Johnson, p. 70
  149. ^ a b Gouverné, Yvonne. "Francis Poulenc", Francis Poulenc: musicien français 1899–1963, retrieved 27 October 2014
  150. ^ Johnson, p. 64
  151. ^ Johnson, p. 128
  152. ^ Hell, pp. 98–99
  153. ^ Vernier, David. "Resonant, Resplendent Poulenc Motets, Mass, Chansons", Classics Today, retrieved 18 July 2016
  154. ^ a b Sams, Jeremy. "Dialogues des Carmélites", The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 22 October 2014 (subscription required)
  155. ^ Machart, Renaud. "Francis Poulenc", Francis Poulenc: musicien français 1899–1963, retrieved 27 October 2014
  156. ^ Sams, Jeremy. "Voix humaine, La", The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 22 October 2014 (subscription required)
  157. ^ Bloch, p. 34
  158. ^ "A recital by Pierre Bernac and Francis Poulenc"; and "Francis Poulenc et Denise Duval interprètent", both WorldCat, retrieved 22 October 2014
  159. ^ Hell, p. 112
  160. ^ "Francis Poulenc & Friends", WorldCat, retrieved 21 November 2014
  161. ^ Bloch, pp. 241–253
  162. ^ "Poulenc Piano Music", WorldCat, retrieved 22 October 2014
  163. ^ Gill, Dominic and Charles Timbrell. "Tacchino, Gabriel", Grove Music Online, Oxford University Press, retrieved 10 October 2014 (subscription required)
  164. ^ "Poulenc Chamber Music", WorldCat, retrieved 22 October 2014
  165. ^ "Poulenc Carmelites" WorldCat, retrieved 27 October 2014
  166. ^ Rorem, Ned. "Poulenc: A Memoir", Tempo, New Series, Number 64, Spring, 1963, pp. 28–29 (subscription required)
  167. ^ Clark, Philip, "The Gramophone Interview – Pierre Boulez", Gramophone, October 2010, p. 49
  168. ^ Poulenc (1991), p. 94
  169. ^ Duchen, Jessica. "Plucky chicken: Sensual, witty and unfairly dismissed as lightweight", The Guardian, 1 January 1999

Sources

  • Bloch, Francine (1984). Francis Poulenc, 1928–1982: Phonographie (in French). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, Département de la phonothèque nationale et de l'audiovisuel. ISBN  978-2-7177-1677-1. 
  • Buckland, Sidney; Myriam Chimènes (eds) (1999). Poulenc: Music, Art and Literature. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN  978-1-85928-407-0. 
  • Burton, Richard D E (2002). Francis Poulenc. Bath: Absolute Press. ISBN  978-1-899791-09-5. 
  • Bush, Geoffrey (1988). Notes to CD set Poulenc – Works for Piano. Colchester: Chandos. 705329248. 
  • Canarina, John (2003). Pierre Monteux, Maître. Pompton Plains, US: Amadeus Press. ISBN  978-1-57467-082-0. 
  • Cayez, Pierre (1988). Rhône-Poulenc, 1895–1975 (in French). Paris: Armand Colin and Masson. ISBN  978-2-200-37146-3. 
  • Chimènes, Myriam (2001). "Évolution des goûts de Francis Poulenc à travers sa correspondance". In Arlette Michel and Loïc Chotard (eds). L'esthétique dans les correspondances d'écrivains et de musiciens, XIXe-XXe siècles (in French). Paris: Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne. ISBN  978-2-84050-128-2. 
  • Daniel, Keith W (1982). Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style. Ann Arbor, US: UMI Research Press. ISBN  978-0-8357-1284-2. 
  • Delamarche, Claire (1996). Notes to CD set Poulenc Concertos. London: Decca. 40895775. 
  • Desgraupes, Bernard; Keith Anderson (trans) (1996). Notes to CD set Les mariés de la tour Eiffel. Munich: MVD. 884183553. 
  • Doctor, Jennifer (1999). The BBC and Ultra-modern Music, 1922–1936. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN  978-0-521-66117-1. 
  • Harding, James (1994). Notes to CD set Ravel and Poulenc – Complete Chamber Music for Woodwinds, Volume 2. London: Cala Records. 32519527. 
  • Francis Poulenc. New York: Grove Press. 1268174. 
  • Hinson, Maurice (2000). Guide to the Pianist's Repertoire. Bloomington, US: Indiana University Press. ISBN  978-0-253-10908-8. 
  • Ivry, Benjamin (1996). Francis Poulenc. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN  978-0-7148-3503-7. 
  • Johnson, Graham (2013). Notes to CD set Francis Poulenc – The Complete Songs. London: Hyperion. 858636867. 
  • Keck, George Russell (1990). Francis Poulenc – A Bio-bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN  978-0-313-25562-5. 
  • Landormy, Paul (1943). La musique française après Debussy. Paris: Gallimard. 3659976. 
  • Machart, Renaud (1995). Poulenc (in French). Paris: Seuil. ISBN  978-2-02-013695-2. 
  • Nectoux, Jean-Michel; Roger Nichols (trans) (1991). Gabriel Fauré – A Musical Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN  978-0-521-23524-2. 
  • Nichols, Roger (1987). Ravel Remembered. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN  978-0-571-14986-5. 
  • Orledge, Robert (2003). "Satie and Les Six". In Richard Langham Smith and Caroline Potter (eds). French Music since Berlioz. Aldershot, UK and Burlington, US: Ashgate. ISBN  978-0-7546-0282-8. 
  • Poulenc, Francis; Stéphane Audel (ed) (1963). Moi et mes amis (in French). Paris and Geneva: Palatine. 504681160. 
  • Poulenc, Francis; Stéphane Audel (ed); James Harding (trans) (1978). My Friends and Myself. London: Dennis Dobson. ISBN  978-0-234-77251-5. 
  • Poulenc, Francis; Sidney Buckland (trans and ed) (1991). Francis Poulenc: Correspondence 1915–1963. London: Victor Gollancz. ISBN  978-0-575-05093-8. 
  • Poulenc, Francis; Myriam Chimènes (ed) (1994). Correspondance 1910–1963 (in French). Paris: Fayard. ISBN  978-2-213-03020-3. 
  • Poulenc, Francis; Nicolas Southon (ed); Roger Nichols (trans) (2014). Articles and Interviews – Notes from the Heart. Burlington, US: Ashgate. ISBN  978-1-4094-6622-2. 
  • Romain, Edwin (1978). A Study of Francis Poulenc's Fifteen Improvisations for Piano Solo. Hattiesburg, US: University of Southern Mississippi. 18081101. 
  • Roy, Jean (1964). Francis Poulenc (in French). Paris: Seghers. 2044230. 
  • Sams, Jeremy (1997) [1993]. "Poulenc, Francis". In Amanda Holden (ed). The Penguin Opera Guide. London: Penguin Books. ISBN  978-0-14-051385-1. 
  • Schmidt, Carl B (1995). The Music of Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) – A Catalogue. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN  978-0-19-816336-7. 
  • Schmidt, Carl B (2001). Entrancing Muse: A Documented Biography of Francis Poulenc. Hillsdale, US: Pendragon Press. ISBN  978-1-57647-026-8. 
Other Languages
български: Франсис Пуленк
čeština: Francis Poulenc
español: Francis Poulenc
Esperanto: Francis Poulenc
français: Francis Poulenc
hrvatski: Francis Poulenc
Bahasa Indonesia: Francis Poulenc
italiano: Francis Poulenc
latviešu: Fransiss Pulenks
Nederlands: Francis Poulenc
norsk bokmål: Francis Poulenc
português: Francis Poulenc
Simple English: Francis Poulenc
slovenčina: Francis Poulenc
slovenščina: Francis Poulenc
српски / srpski: Франсис Пуланк
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Francis Poulenc
Türkçe: Francis Poulenc
українська: Франсіс Пуленк
Tiếng Việt: Francis Poulenc