^"...y a en lui du moine et du voyou." "Voyou" has no exact English translation, and as well as "naughty boy", it has been variously rendered as "ragamuffin or street-urchin", "guttersnipe", "bad boy", "bounder", "hooligan", and "rascal".
^The Poulenc scholar Carl B Schmidt lists two works earlier than Rapsodie nègre, unperformed and known to have been destroyed by the composer: "Processional pour la crémation d'un mandarin" (Processional for the Cremation of a
Mandarin) (1914) and Préludes (1916) both for solo piano; several later pieces composed between 1917 and 1919 were also destroyed or lost.
^A pun on the English colloquial expression "leg-pulling" – playful, humorous deception.
^Poulenc recalled Ravel as saying that
Saint-Saëns was a genius, Schumann was mediocre and much inferior to
Mendelssohn, late Debussy (such as Jeux) was poor, and
orchestration incompetent. Chabrier's music was one of Poulenc's particular enthusiasms. He said in the 1950s, "Ah! Chabrier, I love him as one loves a father! An indulgent father, always merry, his pockets full of tasty tit-bits. Chabrier's music is a treasure-house you could never exhaust. I just could not do without it. It consoles me on my darkest days, because you know ... I am a sad man – who likes to laugh, as do all sad men."
^In the original, Poulenc's quotation of Satie's words is given as, "Ce c... de Ravel, c'est stupide tout ce qu'il dit!"
^Poulenc commented in 1958 how much he had come to admire Ravel and that he had been glad to be able to show it, not only in words, but as a pianist, through his interpretations of Ravel's works.
^Milhaud's view has been questioned by later writers. In Music & Letters in 1957 Vera Rašín cast doubt on the statement that Collet's choice was arbitrary, surmising that the label "Les Six" was carefully planned by
Jean Cocteau, who had taken the group under his wing. A similar view was put forward by the musicologist
Robert Orledge in 2003.
^Koechlin, like Ravel, was a pupil of
Gabriel Fauré, but Poulenc did not share their love of Fauré's music: the Fauré scholar
Jean-Michel Nectoux comments that Poulenc's aversion seems strange because of all the members of Les Six, Poulenc "is the nearest to Fauré in the limpid clarity and singing quality of his own writing, in his charm".
^In addition to "Epitaphe", other Poulenc works were dedicated to Linossier or her memory are the Sonata for Horn, Trumpet and Trombone (1922), Ce doux petit visage (1939), Les Animaux modèles (1941) and "Voyage" from Calligrammes (1948).
^Bernac's timbre and sensitive musicianship considerably influenced Poulenc's compositional style in his mélodies, to a degree comparable with the musical relationship between Poulenc's friends the tenor
Peter Pears and the composer
Benjamin Britten, although unlike their English counterparts Poulenc and Bernac were partners only professionally.
^Poulenc recalled later that they performed only French songs, but his recollection was inaccurate: German songs, notably those of
Schumann, were included in some programmes.
^This song, "You shall not have
Alsace and Lorraine", was a popular patriotic French ditty dating from the
Franco-Prussian War, when the Germans defeated France and annexed much of
Lorraine. France regained them after the First World War, but at the time of Les Animaux modèles they were once again under German control.
^The piece was not produced in the US until 1953, and did not reach Britain until 1958, when Britten and Pears presented it at the
Aldeburgh Festival. It remains by a considerable margin the least popular of Poulenc's three operas; Dialogues des Carmélites and La Voix humaine each received more than four times as many productions worldwide between 2012 and 2014.
^Despite their musical differences, Poulenc and Boulez maintained amicable personal relations: exchanges of friendly letters are recorded in Poulenc's published correspondence.
^In 1949, thrilled by a new American recording of his 1936 Mass conducted by
Robert Shaw, Poulenc exclaimed, "At last the world will know that I am a serious composer.
^There was a joke in musical circles at the time that Poulenc was writing his solo opera for
Maria Callas, who was known for her reluctance to share the spotlight with anybody, but in fact there was never any thought that Callas, or anyone apart from Duval, should play the lead.
^In a letter to Milhaud in 1950 Poulenc, who had earlier singled out Messiaen as one of France's most promising young composers, privately compared Messiaen's recent compositions to "holy water out of a bidet".
^"Je souhaite une musique saine, claire et robuste, une musique aussi franchement française que celle de Strawinsky est slave."
^At the time of Poulenc's comments there were only twelve: the first set, numbers 1–10, date from the 1920s and the second set, numbers 11 and 12, from the 1930s; numbers 13–15 were written in 1958–59.
Cayez, Pierre (1988). Rhône-Poulenc, 1895–1975 (in French). Paris: Armand Colin and Masson.
Chimènes, Myriam (2001). "Évolution des goûts de Francis Poulenc à travers sa correspondance". In Arlette Michel and Loïc Chotard (eds). L'esthétique dans les correspondances d'écrivains et de musiciens, XIXe-XXe siècles (in French). Paris: Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne.
Daniel, Keith W (1982). Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style. Ann Arbor, US: UMI Research Press.
Delamarche, Claire (1996). Notes to CD set Poulenc Concertos. London: Decca.
Desgraupes, Bernard; Keith Anderson (trans) (1996). Notes to CD set Les mariés de la tour Eiffel. Munich: MVD.
Doctor, Jennifer (1999). The BBC and Ultra-modern Music, 1922–1936. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harding, James (1994). Notes to CD set Ravel and Poulenc – Complete Chamber Music for Woodwinds, Volume 2. London: Cala Records.