County | united kingdom

United Kingdom

Ceremonial counties of England

The United Kingdom is divided into a number of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. There are also ceremonial counties which group small non-metropolitan counties into geographical areas broadly based on the historic counties of England. In 1974, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties replaced the system of administrative counties and county boroughs which was introduced in 1889.

Most non-metropolitan counties in England are run by county councils and are divided into non-metropolitan districts, each with its own council. Local authorities in the UK are usually responsible for education, emergency services, planning, transport, social services, and a number of other functions.

In England, in the Anglo-Saxon period, shires were established as areas used for the raising of taxes, and usually had a fortified town at their centre. This became known as the shire town or later the county town. In many cases, the shires were named after their shire town (for example Bedfordshire), but there are several exceptions, such as Cumberland, Norfolk and Suffolk. In several other cases, such as Buckinghamshire, the modern county town is different from the town for which the shire is named. (See Toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom)

The name "county" was introduced by the Normans, and was derived from a Norman term for an area administered by a Count (lord). These Norman "counties" were simply the Saxon shires, and kept their Saxon names. Several traditional counties, including Essex, Sussex and Kent, predate the unification of England by Alfred the Great, and were originally more or less independent kingdoms.

In Northern Ireland, the six county councils, if not their counties, were abolished in 1973 and replaced by 26 local government districts. The traditional six counties remain in common everyday use for many cultural and other purposes.

The thirteen historic counties of Wales were fixed by statute in 1539 (although counties such as Pembrokeshire date from 1138) and most of the shires of Scotland are of at least this age. In the Gaelic form, Scottish traditional county names are generally distinguished by the designation siorramachd—literally "sherrifdom", e.g. Siorramachd Earra-ghaidheal (Argyllshire). This term corresponds to the jurisdiction of the sheriff in the Scottish legal system.

Until 1974, the county boundaries of England changed little over time. In the mediæval period, a number of important cities were granted the status of counties in their own right, such as London, Bristol and Coventry, and numerous small exclaves such as Islandshire were created. In 1844, most of these exclaves were transferred to their surrounding counties.

In 1965 and 1974–1975, major reorganisations of local government in England and Wales created several new administrative counties such as Hereford and Worcester and also created several new metropolitan counties based on large urban areas as a single administrative unit. In Scotland, county-level local government was replaced by larger regions, which lasted until 1996. Modern local government in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and a large part of England is trending towards smaller unitary authorities: a system similar to that proposed in the 1960s by the Redcliffe-Maud Report for most of Britain.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: County
Ænglisc: Scīr
azərbaycanca: Şəhristan
تۆرکجه: بولگه
беларуская: Графства
български: Графство
Boarisch: County
brezhoneg: Kontelezh
Cebuano: Kontado
čeština: Hrabství
Cymraeg: Sir
dansk: County
Deutsch: County
eesti: Maakond
Ελληνικά: Κομητεία
español: Condado
Esperanto: County
فارسی: شهرستان
français: Comitat
Gaelg: Coontae
galego: Condado
हिन्दी: काउण्टी
hrvatski: Grofovija
Ido: Komtio
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কোন্ডাডো
íslenska: Sýsla
kurdî: Şaristan
Latina: Comitatus
latviešu: Grāfiste
Limburgs: Graofsjap
македонски: Грофовија
Bahasa Melayu: Kaunti
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gâing
Nederlands: County
日本語: カウンティ
нохчийн: Графство
Nordfriisk: County
occitan: Comtat
پنجابی: کاؤنٹی
Tok Pisin: Kaunti
Plattdüütsch: County
polski: Hrabstwo
português: Condado
română: Comitat
русский: Графство
Scots: Coonty
Simple English: County
српски / srpski: Грофовија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grofovija
suomi: Piirikunta
svenska: County
Tagalog: Kondado
тоҷикӣ: Шаҳристон
Türkçe: Kontluk
українська: Графство
اردو: شہرستان
vèneto: Contea
Tiếng Việt: Hạt (hành chính)
文言:
吴语:
粵語:
中文: