Caracalla | references

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Coloniae are cities of Roman citizens built in conquered provinces. Non-Romans living in a colonia were allowed to become citizens when they accepted the rule of Rome.[41]
  2. ^ The Latin Rights or ius Latii were an intermediate or probationary stage for non-Romans obtaining full Roman citizenship. Aside from the right to vote, and ability to pursue a political office, the Latin Rights were just a limited Roman citizenship.[42][43]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 405–406. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  2. ^ a b c Gagarin, Michael (2009). Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. p. 51.
  3. ^ Tabbernee, William; Lampe, Peter (2008). Pepouza and Tymion: The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-020859-8.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  5. ^ Phang, Sara (2008). Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0-521-88269-9.
  6. ^ Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  7. ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 19.
  8. ^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  9. ^ a b c Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  10. ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  11. ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  12. ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  13. ^ a b Varner, Eric, R. (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 168. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  15. ^ a b c Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. p. 413. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.
  16. ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 25. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.
  17. ^ a b c Brauer, G. (1967). The Decadent Emperors: Power and Depravity in Third-Century Rome. p. 75.
  18. ^ a b c Christopher, Matthew (2015). An Invincible Beast: Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action. Casemate Publishers. p. 403.
  19. ^ Morgan, Robert (2016). History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress. p. 31. ISBN 1-4602-8027-X.
  20. ^ Fisher, Warren (2010). The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: From Caesar's Crossing the Rhine (49 Bc) to Empire's Fall, 476 Ad. AuthorHouse. p. 86. ISBN 1-4490-7739-0.
  21. ^ a b Melton, Gordon, J. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5000 Years of Religious History. p. 338.
  22. ^ Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 413–414. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.
  23. ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  24. ^ Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  25. ^ Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  26. ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 46.
  27. ^ a b c Tuori, Kaius (2016). "Judge Julia Domna? A Historical Mystery and the Emergence of Imperial Legal Administration". The Journal of Legal History. 37: 180–197. 10.1080/01440365.2016.1191590.
  28. ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 42.
  29. ^ Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. pp. 68–69. ISBN 1-317-49694-9.
  30. ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 21. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.
  31. ^ a b c d Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.
  32. ^ Oetelaar, Taylor (2014). "Reconstructing the Baths of Caracalla". Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.
  33. ^ Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.
  34. ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137–139. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.
  35. ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.
  36. ^ Lim, Richard (2010). The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome: Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 114.
  37. ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  38. ^ Levine, Lee (1975). Caesarea Under Roman Rule. Brill Archive. p. 195. ISBN 90-04-04013-7.
  39. ^ Benario, Herbert (1954). "The Dediticii of the Constitutio Antoniniana". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 85: 188. 10.2307/283475.
  40. ^ Cairns, John (2007). Beyond Dogmatics: Law and Society in the Roman World: Law and Society in the Roman World. Edinburgh University Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-7486-3177-1.
  41. ^ Whittock, Martyn John; Whittock, Martyn (1991). The Roman Empire. Heinemann. p. 28. ISBN 0-435-31274-X.
  42. ^ Johnson, Allan; Coleman-Norton, Paul; Bourne, Frank; Pharr, Clyde (1961). Ancient Roman Statutes: A Translation with Introduction, Commentary, Glossary, and Index. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 266. ISBN 1-58477-291-3.
  43. ^ Zoch, Paul (2000). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-8061-3287-6.
  44. ^ Lavan, Myles (2016). "The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14–212 CE: Quantification in the face of high uncertainty". Past and Present (230). 10.1093/pastj/gtv043.
  45. ^ a b c Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  46. ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2004). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  47. ^ a b Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  48. ^ a b Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 127. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.
  49. ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  50. ^ Oman, C. (1916). "The Decline and Fall of the Denarius in the Third Century A.D.". Royal Numismatic Society.
  51. ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.
  52. ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 123. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.
  53. ^ a b Bergeron, David (2007–2008). "Roman Antoninianus". Bank of Canada Review.
  54. ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 139. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.
  55. ^ Harl, Kenneth (1996). Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. JHU Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-801-85291-9.
  56. ^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 406–407. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  57. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.
  58. ^ Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.
  59. ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
  60. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art: Portrait head of the Emperor Caracalla". acc. no. 40.11.1a
  61. ^ Herodian of Antioch. History of the Roman Empire. pp. 4.7.3.
  62. ^ Dio, Cassius (n.d.). Roman History. pp. 78.11.1.
  63. ^ Varner, Eric, R. (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 169. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.
  64. ^ a b Pangerl, Andreas (2013). Porträttypen des Caracalla und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen – Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt des RGZM Mainz 43. pp. 99–116.
  65. ^ Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 251.
  66. ^ Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. pp. 251–252.
  67. ^ Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 184. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.
  68. ^ a b c d Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 226. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.
  69. ^ a b Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors in Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 227. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.
  70. ^ Tuck, Steven L. (2014). A History of Roman Art. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4443-3026-7.
  71. ^ a b Mehl, Andreas (2011). Roman Historiography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 171.
  72. ^ Breisach, Ernst (2008). Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 75. ISBN 0-226-07284-3.
  73. ^ Hadas, Moses (2013). History of Latin Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 355. ISBN 0-231-51487-5.
  74. ^ Leistner, M. W. L. (1966). The Greater Roman Historians. University of California Press. p. 180.
  75. ^ Schäfer, Peter (2003). The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. p. 55. ISBN 3-16-148076-7.
  76. ^ Scott, Andrew G. (2015). Cassius Dio, Caracalla, and the Senate. De Gruyter Publishers. p. 157.
  77. ^ a b c d Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 113.
  78. ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 114.
  79. ^ Ashley, Mike (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Hachette UK. p. B21;P80. ISBN 1-4721-0113-8.
  80. ^ Wood, Susan (2010). "Caracalla and the French Revolution: A Roman tyrant in eighteenth-century iconography". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.
  81. ^ a b Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla and Imperial Administration 212–217. pp. iii.
  82. ^ Agnew, John; Bidwell, Walter (1844). The Eclectic Magazine: Foreign Literature, Volume 2. Leavitt, Throw and Company. p. 217.
  83. ^ Magie, David (1950). Roman Rule in Asia Minor. Princeton University Press. p. 683.
  84. ^ Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla and Imperial Administration 212–217. p. 127.
  85. ^ Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.
  86. ^ Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla and Imperial Administration 212–217. pp. 46–47.
  87. ^ Asante, Molefi K.; Ismail, Shaza (2016). "Interrogating the African Roman Emperor Caracalla: Claiming and Reclaiming an African Leader". Journal of Black Studies. 47: 41–52. 10.1177/0021934715611376.

Sources

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  • Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.
  • Asante, Molefi K., Shaza, Ismail (2016). "Interrogating the African Roman Emperor Caracalla: Claiming and Reclaiming an African Leader". Journal of Black Studies. 47: 41–52. 10.1177/0021934715611376.
  • Ashley, Mike (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Hachette UK. ISBN 1-4721-0113-8.
  • Benario, Herbert (1954). "The Dediticii of the Constitutio Antoniniana". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 85: 188. 10.2307/283475.
  • Bergeron, David (2007–2008). "Roman Antoninianus". Bank of Canada Review.
  • Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel, J; Talbert, Richard J.A (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.
  • Brauer, G (1967). The Decadent Emperors: Power and Depravity in Third-Century Rome.
  • Breisach, Ernst (2008). Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07284-3.
  • Cairns, John (2007). Beyond Dogmatics: Law and Society in the Roman World: Law and Society in the Roman World. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-3177-1.
  • Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.
  • Dio, Cassius. (n.d.). Roman History
  • Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.
  • Fisher, Warren (2010). The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: From Caesar's Crossing the Rhine (49 Bc) to Empire's Fall, 476 Ad. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4490-7739-0.
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  • Hadas, Moses (2013). History of Latin Literature. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-51487-5.
  • Harl, Kenneth (1996). Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. JHU Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-801-85291-9.
  • Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire. EUP. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.
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  • Lavan, Myles (2016). "The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14–212 CE: Quantification in the Face of High Uncertainty". Past and Present. 230: 3–46. 10.1093/pastj/gtv043.
  • Leistner, M. W. L. (1966). The Greater Roman Historians. University of California Press.
  • Levine, Lee (1975). Caesarea Under Roman Rule. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-04013-7.
  • Lim, Richard (2010). The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Rome and Greece: Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Magie, David (1950). Roman Rule in Asia Minor. Princeton University Press.
  • Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.
  • Matthew, Christopher (2015). An Invincible Beast: Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action. Casemate Publishers.
  • Mehl, Andres (2011). Roman Historiography. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Melton, Gordon, J. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5000 Years of Religious History.
  • Mennen, Inge (2011). Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Impact of Empire. Volume 12. Brill Academic. 859895124.
  • Morgan, Robert (2016). History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress. ISBN 1-4602-8027-X.
  • Oman, C (1916). The Decline and Fall of the Denarius in the Third Century A.D. Royal Numismatic Society.
  • Oetelaar, Taylor (2014). "Reconstructing the Baths of Caracalla". Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural History.
  • Pangerl, Andreas (2013). Porträttypen des Caracalla und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen – Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta. RGZM Mainz.
  • Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press.
  • Schäfer, Peter (2003). The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 3-16-148076-7.
  • Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. ISBN 0-549-89041-6. 430652279.
  • Scott, Andrew G. (2015). Cassius Dio, Caracalla and the Senate. De Gruyters.
  • Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla and Imperial Administration 212–217.
  • Tuck, Steven L. (2014). A History of Roman Art. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-3026-7.
  • Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. ISBN 1-317-49694-9.
  • Tabbernee, William; Lampe, Peter (2008). Pepouza and Tymion: The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-020859-8.
  • Tuori, Kaius (2016). "Judge Julia Domna? A Historical Mystery and the Emergence of Imperial Legal Administration". The Journal of Legal History. 37: 180–197. 10.1080/01440365.2016.1191590.
  • Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.
  • Whittock, Martyn John; Whittock, Martyn (1991). The Roman Empire. Heinemann. p. 28. ISBN 0-435-31274-X.
  • Wood, Susan (2010). "Caracalla and the French Revolution: A Roman tyrant in eighteenth-century iconography". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.
  • Zoch, Paul (2000). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-8061-3287-6.
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