Barbados | references

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Barbados Archived 20 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ "Barbados – General Information". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=65&pr.y=5&sy=2017&ey=2024&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=316&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=
  4. ^ "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Barbados". 29 August 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. (fco.gov.uk), updated 5 June 2006.
  6. ^ Chapter 4 – The Windward Islands and Barbados Archived 4 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine – U.S. Library of Congress
  7. ^ a b Sauer, Carl Ortwin (1969) [1966]. Early Spanish Main, The. University of California Press. pp. 192–197. ISBN 0-520-01415-4.
  8. ^ The Jewish Experience in 17th century Barbados Archived 27 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, By Ryan Hechler, The VCU Menorah Review at Virginia Commonwealth University
  9. ^ Secretariat. "Barbados – History". the original on 20 August 2014.
  10. ^ HRM Queen Elizabeth II (2010). "History and present government – Barbados". the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  11. ^ "AXSES Systems Caribbean Inc., The Barbados Tourism Encyclopaedia". Barbados.org. 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2000. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  12. ^ "Britannica Encyclopaedia: History of Barbados". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  13. ^ Barbados the Red Land with White Teeth: Home of the Amerindians. Barbados Museum & Historical Society. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. A temporary exhibit which examined some of the preliminary excavations conducted at the dig site at Heywoods, St. Peter.
  14. ^ Barbados – Geography / History. Fun 'N' Sun Publishing Inc. 2008. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  15. ^ Faria, Norman (17 June 2009). "Guyana Consul (Barbados) Visit to Former Amerindian Village Site in B'dos" (PDF). Guyana Chronicle. Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2010. Adjacent to the park, there is still a fresh water stream. This as a main reason the village was here. A hundred or so metres away is the sea and a further five hundred metres [550 yd] out across a lagoon was the outlying reef where the Atlantic swells broke on the coral in shallow waters. As an aside, the word "Ichirouganaim", said to be an Arawak word used by the Amerindians to describe Barbados, is thought to refer to the "teeth" imagery of the waves breaking on the reefs off most of southern and eastern coasts.
  16. ^ Drewett, Peter (1991). Prehistoric Barbados. Barbados Museum and Historical Society. ISBN 1-873132-15-8.
  17. ^ Drewett, Peter (2000). Prehistoric Settlements in the Caribbean: Fieldwork on Barbados, Tortola and the Cayman Islands. Archetype Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-873132-22-0.
  18. ^ a b c Carrington, Sean (2007). A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean Publishers Limited. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-92068-6.
  19. ^ Allsopp, Richard; Allsopp, Jeannette (2003). Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. University of the West Indies Press. p. 101. ISBN 9766401454.
  20. ^ Eltis, David; Richardson, David (1997). Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity, and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7146-4820-0. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  21. ^ Morgan, Philip D.; Hawkins, Sean (2004). Black Experience and the Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-19-926029-X.
  22. ^ Beckles, Hilary. A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market (Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition).
  23. ^ "Origin of the Eagle Clan", Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations.
  24. ^ Descendants of Princess Marian. (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  25. ^ Corish, Patrick J. Patrick J. Corish, The Cromwellian Regime, 1650–1660. oup.com. pp. 353–386. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  26. ^ Portner, Ze'ev (4 December 2015). "Barbados, a centuries-old Jewish haven for relaxation — and refuge". Archived from the original on 5 September 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016. Celebrating its independence this week, the Caribbean island has a storied Jewish history spanning from the Inquisition to the Holocaust
  27. ^ "Barbados Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  28. ^ "Barbados – population Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  29. ^ William And John Archived 17 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 11 January 201, Shipstamps.co.uk
  30. ^ Beckles p. 7.
  31. ^ "Holetown Barbados – Fun Barbados Sights". www.funbarbados.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  32. ^ Karl Watson, The Civil War in Barbados Archived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, History in-depth, BBC, 5 November 2009.
  33. ^ "New Take on George Slept Here". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  34. ^ a b Ali, Arif (1997). Barbados: Just Beyond Your Imagination. Hansib Publishing (Caribbean) Ltd. pp. 46, 48. ISBN 1-870518-54-3.
  35. ^ A Relation... in: "Alice Curwen", Autobiographical Writings by Early Quaker Women (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2004), ed. David Booy.
  36. ^ Logan, Gabi. "Geologic History of Barbados Beaches". Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2011. Barbados lies directly over the intersection of the Caribbean plate and the South American plate in a region known as a subduction zone. Beneath the ocean floor, the South American plate slowly slides below the Caribbean plate.
  37. ^ "Barbados Sightseeing – Animal Flower Cave". Leigh Designs. Little Bay House. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011. The Animal flower Cave is the island's lone accessible sea-cave and was discovered from the sea in 1780 by two English explorers. The cave's coral floor is estimated to be 400,000 to 500,000 years old and the "younger" coral section above the floor is about 126,000 years old. The dating was carried out by the German Geographical Institute, and visitors can see a "map" of the dating work in the bar and restaurant. The cave now stands some six feet above the high tide mark even though it was formed at sea level. This is because Barbados is rising about one inch per 1,000 years, which is yet another indication of the cave's age.
  38. ^ Gloria. "Pico Teneriffe - Barbados Pocket Guide". www.barbadospocketguide.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  39. ^ "Average and Record Conditions at Bridgetown, Barbados". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
  40. ^ "Hurricane Tomas lashes Caribbean islands" Archived 5 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News, 30 October 2010.
  41. ^ Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Techniques in Barbados Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Cep.unep.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  42. ^ Barbados, World Resources Institute
  43. ^ Perspectives: A continuing problem and persistent threat Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  44. ^ a b "PERSPECTIVES: Squatting – a continuing problem" Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com (24 March 2008). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  45. ^ "Squatters get thumbs down from MP Forde" Archived 21 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Nationnews.com (30 June 2010). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  46. ^ "Welcome to Coastal Zone Management Unit – Coastal Zone Management Unit". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  47. ^ Barbados' CZMU in demand Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com (4 February 2012). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  48. ^ Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies Archived 28 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The University of the West Indies.
  49. ^ Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles Archived 23 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine, UN-FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
  50. ^ Prospero, Joseph M. (June 2006). "Saharan Dust Impacts and Climate Change" (PDF). Oceanography. 19 (2): 60–61. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2015.
  51. ^ The Effects of African Dust on Coral Reefs and Human Health Archived 22 June 2012 at WebCite. Coastal.er.usgs.gov (15 April 2014). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  52. ^ When the Dust Settles (DAAC Study) Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, NASA
  53. ^ The Impact of African Dust on Childhood Asthma Morbidity in Barbados Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Commprojects.jhsph.edu. Retrieved April 2014.
  54. ^ Caribbean Travel: Swim with the turtles in Barbados Archived 15 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Thestar.com (13 March 2012). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  55. ^ Sea Turtles – Dive Operators Association of Barbados Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Barbados Blue Inc.
  56. ^ 2010 Population and Housing Census (PDF) (Report). 1. Barbados Statistical Service. September 2013. p. i. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  57. ^ Best, Tony (9 April 2005)"Bajan secrets to living long". Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2006. . nationnews.com.
  58. ^ Byfield, Judith Ann-Marie; Denzer, LaRay; Morrison, Anthea (2010). Gendering the African diaspora: women, culture, and historical change in the Caribbean and Nigerian hinterland. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-22153-7.
  59. ^ Are Guyanese welcome in Barbados? Archived 11 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 7 September 2006; British Broadcasting Corporation (Caribbean Bureau)
  60. ^ Watson, Karl (17 February 2011) "Slavery and Economy in Barbados" Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BBC.
  61. ^ Rodgers, Nini (November 2007). "The Irish in the Caribbean 1641–1837: An Overview". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America. 5 (3): 145–156. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
  62. ^ "Remnants of an indentured people". Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2019. Today, behind the facade of a lush green, rural setting, the descendents of those transported still remain – a poor, white population of around 400 known as the Red Legs.
  63. ^ Amadou Mahtar M'Bow; M. Ali Kettani (2001). Islam and Muslims in the American Continent. Center of Historical, Economical and Social Studies.
  64. ^ Rhoda Reddock (1996). Ethnic minorities in Caribbean society. I.S.E.R., The University of the West Indies. ISBN 978-976-618-024-9.
  65. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  66. ^ Singh, Rajkumar (20 January 2006). "Parliament: Act of Parliament concerning the Anglican church". Caricomlaw.org. Retrieved 4 July 2010.[dead link]
  67. ^ "Baha'u'llah". Bci.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  68. ^ Fransman, Laurie (2011). Fransman's British Nationality Law. A&C Black. p. 848. ISBN 978-1-84592-095-1.
  69. ^ The official Constitution of Barbados Archived 15 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine (1966) version.
  70. ^ "Chasing after an elusive union". Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2010.. Jamaica Observer, 20 July 2003.
  71. ^ Former PM: Caribbean doing/un-doing everything again and again Archived 19 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. NationNews.com. 14 July 2003
  72. ^ BarbadosBusiness.gov.bb, The Barbados government's Regional and International affiliations
  73. ^ "European Union – EEAS (European External Action Service) | EU Relations with Barbados". Europa (web portal). 19 June 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  74. ^ REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. "Legal Supplement" (PDF). www.ird.gov.tt. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
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  76. ^ "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  77. ^ Barbados Archived 10 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, International Monetary Fund.
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  79. ^ "20 percent in poverty". Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation. 20 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
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Other Languages
Afrikaans: Barbados
Alemannisch: Barbados
አማርኛ: ባርቤዶስ
Ænglisc: Barbados
العربية: باربادوس
aragonés: Barbados
arpetan: Barbâda
asturianu: Barbados
Avañe'ẽ: Varvado
Aymar aru: Barbados
azərbaycanca: Barbados
تۆرکجه: باربادوس
Bân-lâm-gú: Barbados
башҡортса: Барбадос
беларуская: Барбадас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Барбадас
भोजपुरी: बारबाडोस
Bikol Central: Barbados
български: Барбадос
Boarisch: Barbados
བོད་ཡིག: བར་བ་ཌོ་སི།
bosanski: Barbados
brezhoneg: Barbados
буряад: Барбадос
català: Barbados
Cebuano: Barbados
čeština: Barbados
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Barbados
chiShona: Barbados
Cymraeg: Barbados
dansk: Barbados
davvisámegiella: Barbados
Deutsch: Barbados
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބާބަޑޮސް
dolnoserbski: Barbados
डोटेली: बार्बाडोस
eesti: Barbados
Ελληνικά: Μπαρμπάντος
эрзянь: Барбадос
español: Barbados
Esperanto: Barbado
estremeñu: Barbaus
euskara: Barbados
eʋegbe: Barbados
فارسی: باربادوس
Fiji Hindi: Barbados
føroyskt: Barbados
français: Barbade
Frysk: Barbados
Gaeilge: Barbadós
Gaelg: Barbados
Gagauz: Barbados
Gàidhlig: Barbados
galego: Barbados
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बार्बाडोस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Barbados
한국어: 바베이도스
հայերեն: Բարբադոս
हिन्दी: बारबाडोस
hornjoserbsce: Barbados
hrvatski: Barbados
Igbo: Barbados
Ilokano: Barbados
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বার্বাডোস
Bahasa Indonesia: Barbados
interlingua: Barbados
Interlingue: Barbados
íslenska: Barbados
italiano: Barbados
עברית: ברבדוס
Jawa: Barbadhos
Kapampangan: Barbados
ქართული: ბარბადოსი
қазақша: Барбадос
kernowek: Barbados
Kinyarwanda: Barubadosi
Kiswahili: Barbados
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lababad
kurdî: Barbados
Кыргызча: Барбадос
кырык мары: Барбадос
Ladino: Barbados
Latina: Barbata
latviešu: Barbadosa
Lëtzebuergesch: Barbados
lietuvių: Barbadosas
Ligure: Barbados
Limburgs: Barbados
lingála: Barbados
Lingua Franca Nova: Barbados
Livvinkarjala: Barbados
lumbaart: Barbados
magyar: Barbados
македонски: Барбадос
Malagasy: Barbady
മലയാളം: ബാർബേഡോസ്
Malti: Barbados
მარგალური: ბარბადოსი
مازِرونی: باربادوس
Bahasa Melayu: Barbados
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Barbados
мокшень: Барбадос
монгол: Барбадос
Dorerin Naoero: Barbadot
Nederlands: Barbados
नेपाली: बार्बाडोस
नेपाल भाषा: बार्बाडोस
日本語: バルバドス
нохчийн: Барбадос
Nordfriisk: Barbados
Norfuk / Pitkern: Barbados
norsk: Barbados
norsk nynorsk: Barbados
Novial: Barbados
occitan: Barbados
олык марий: Барбадос
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବାରବାଡୋସ
Oromoo: Baarbeedoos
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Barbados
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਰਬਾਡੋਸ
پنجابی: باربادوس
Papiamentu: Barbados
Patois: Baabiedoz
Piemontèis: Barbados
Plattdüütsch: Barbados
polski: Barbados
português: Barbados
Qaraqalpaqsha: Barbados
qırımtatarca: Barbados
română: Barbados
rumantsch: Barbados
Runa Simi: Barbatus
русиньскый: Барбадос
русский: Барбадос
саха тыла: Барбадос
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱟᱨᱵᱟᱰᱚᱥ
संस्कृतम्: बार्बाडोस
Scots: Barbados
Seeltersk: Barbados
shqip: Barbadosi
sicilianu: Barbados
Simple English: Barbados
SiSwati: IBhadosi
slovenčina: Barbados
slovenščina: Barbados
ślůnski: Barbados
Soomaaliga: Barbados
کوردی: باربادۆس
српски / srpski: Барбадос
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Barbados
Basa Sunda: Barbados
suomi: Barbados
svenska: Barbados
Tagalog: Barbados
Taqbaylit: Barbados
татарча/tatarça: Барбадос
తెలుగు: బార్బడోస్
tetun: Barbadus
тоҷикӣ: Барбадос
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏆᏇᏙᏍ
Türkçe: Barbados
українська: Барбадос
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: باربادوس
Vahcuengh: Barbados
vèneto: Barbados
vepsän kel’: Barbados
Tiếng Việt: Barbados
Volapük: Barbadeän
Võro: Barbados
walon: Barbåde
文言: 巴貝多
Winaray: Barbados
Wolof: Barbados
吴语: 巴巴多斯
ייִדיש: בארבאדאס
Yorùbá: Bárbádọ̀s
粵語: 巴巴多斯
Zazaki: Barbados
Zeêuws: Barbados
žemaitėška: Barbaduosos
中文: 巴巴多斯