Unconscious mind

Hypnotic seance, by Richard Bergh, 1887

The unconscious mind is thought to be a deeper part of a person's mind that works without that person knowing it. Feelings, thoughts, desires or emotions appear to come out of nowhere, leaving the person to question where they came from.

The unconscious mind is a term coined by the 18th century German romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling and later introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge.[1] It is, however, an ancient idea which has been noticed in many civilisations and cultures. Also, whether other mammals have similar mental mechanisms to man is also a question with a considerable history.[2]

Freud's views

An iceberg is often used to illustrate Freud's theory that most of the human mind operates unconsciously

The unconscious mind plays a large role in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. He discussed the importance of the unconscious mind in understanding conscious thought and behaviour.

However, the unconscious was not discovered by Freud. Historian of psychology Mark Altschule concluded, "It is difficult—or perhaps impossible—to find a nineteenth-century psychologist or psychiatrist who did not recognize unconscious thought as not only real but of the highest importance".[3]

Freud's advance was not to uncover the unconscious but to devise a method for systematically studying it, but his method is controversial, and so are the rest of his ideas. Freud called dreams the "royal road to the unconscious". He developed his idea in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899). The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought; its contents could be accessed with a little effort. A key feature of the unconscious is what he called 'repression'. Freud believed that many people repress painful memories deep into their unconscious mind.

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