Tunisia

Tunisian Republic
الجمهورية التونسية
al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah
Coat of arms of Tunisia
Coat of arms
Motto: حرية، نظام، عدالة
"Ḥurriyyah, Niẓām, ‘Adālah"
"Liberty, Order, Justice"[1]
Anthem: "Humat al-Hima"
"Defenders of the Homeland"
Location of Tunisia
Capital
and largest city
Tunis
Official languagesArabic[2]
DemonymTunisian
GovernmentUnitary Semi- Presidential Republic [2]
• President
Beji Caid Essebsi
Youssef Chahed
Independence
• from France
March 20, 1956
Area
• Total
163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi) (92nd)
• Water (%)
5.0
Population
• Apr 2, 2017 estimate
10,432,500[3] (79th)
• 2011 census
11,245,284[3]
• Density
63/km2 (163.2/sq mi) (133rd (2005))
Gini (2000)39.8
medium
HDI (2011)Increase 0.698[4]
medium · 94th
CurrencyTunisian dinar (TND)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on theright
Calling code216
ISO 3166 codeTN
Internet TLD.tn .تونس[5]

Tunisia (or formally, the Republic of Tunisia) is a country in North Africa. Tunis is its capital.

History

The early History

Since history has been recorded, there were Berber tribes living in what is now Tunisia. Most of them built little towns and ports along the coastline so they could trade with different travellers from everywhere in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the travellers that used to pass by Tunisia were Phoenicians who started to settle on the Tunisian coast during the 10th Century BC. Later, in the 8th Century BC, Carthage was built by some settlers that came from Phoenicia and regions abroad. After many wars against Greece in 6th Century BC, Carthage dominated the Mediterranean Sea.

During the Second Punic War, Carthage invaded Italy with an army led by Hannibal. The series of wars between the Roman Empire and Carthage ended with the destruction of Carthage in the 2nd Century BC. After the destruction of the Carthaginian civilization, the region became under the Roman Empire control.

When the Roman Empire became weak, the Vandals occupied that region. This was in the 5th Century AD, and one hundred years after that, it became under the control of the Byzantine emperor Justinian.

Beginning of Islam

In the 7th Century, it was re-conquered by the Arab Muslims who built a city which they called Kairouan. Kairouan was the first Arab Muslim city in Tunisia. Many Muslim dynasties (monarchies) ruled Tunisia. One of the best known dynasties was the Zirids dynasty. The Zirids was a Berber dynasty that followed the rules of the Fatimides, a bigger dynasty in Cairo. When the Zirids angered the Fatimides, the Fatimides sent some tribes known as Banu Hilal who ravaged (destroyed and vandalized) Tunisia.

After a brief occupation of Tunisia by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th Century, the Almohad re-conquered it. After that came the Hafsids. In the last years of their reign, the Hafsids became weak and Spain took control of many cities on the coast until they were finally occupied by the Ottoman Empire.

In 1705, Tunisia became virtually independent during the Hussein dynasty, but still had to follow orders from the Ottoman Empire.

French Occupation

Some controversial financial decisions (money-lending) taken by the Bey in mid-1800s in an attempt to repair the country led Tunisia to become under the control of France. Tunisia became officially a French protectorate in on May 12, 1881.

World War II

Major operations during the second world war took place in Tunisia.

General Rommel, the German leader in Africa, wished to defeat the allies in Tunisia, as the Germans had done in the Battle of France. As the allies were inexperienced before the Battle of Tunisia against the German Blitzkrieg and were a bit slow to recover after other attacks, this battle was to be a major test.

On February 19, 1943, General Rommel launched an attack against the U.S. Forces. That was a disaster for the United States. The area where the attacks had been, in the western area of Tunisia, became the site of many US war graves .

After that, the Allies understood the importance of tank warfare, and they easily broke into the German lines in southern Tunisia on March 20, 1943.

Independence and revolution

Tunisia became independent in 1956 and Habib Bourguiba became the first president. In 1957 it became a republic. Bourguiba focused on education and economic development. He was quite supportive of women's rights. However, he had a cult of personality around him and most of the power in the country was held by Bourguiba.

In 1987, Bourguiba was removed from power by Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. Ben Ali ruled as dictator of the country until 2011, when he was overthrown in a revolution. The revolution was the first major revolution of the Arab Spring. Tunisia began becoming more democratic, and in 2014, the country held its first free presidential election. The election was won by Beji Caid Essebsi, a secular, liberal candidate.

Other Languages
Acèh: Tunisia
адыгабзэ: Тунис
Afrikaans: Tunisië
Alemannisch: Tunesien
አማርኛ: ቱኒዚያ
Ænglisc: Tunisia
العربية: تونس
aragonés: Tunicia
arpetan: Tunisie
asturianu: Tunicia
azərbaycanca: Tunis
تۆرکجه: تونیس
bamanankan: Tunizi
Bahasa Banjar: Tunisia
Bân-lâm-gú: Tunisia
башҡортса: Тунис
беларуская: Туніс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Туніс
भोजपुरी: ट्यूनीशिया
Bikol Central: Tunisya
български: Тунис
བོད་ཡིག: ཏུ་ནི་ཤི་ཡ།
bosanski: Tunis
brezhoneg: Tunizia
буряад: Тунис
català: Tunísia
Чӑвашла: Тунис
Cebuano: Tunisia
čeština: Tunisko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Túnez
chiShona: Tunisia
Cymraeg: Tiwnisia
dansk: Tunesien
davvisámegiella: Tunisia
Deutsch: Tunesien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތޫނިސް
डोटेली: ट्युनिसिया
eesti: Tuneesia
Ελληνικά: Τυνησία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tüniṡia
English: Tunisia
español: Túnez
Esperanto: Tunizio
estremeñu: Túnis
euskara: Tunisia
eʋegbe: Tunisia
فارسی: تونس
Fiji Hindi: Tunisia
føroyskt: Tunesia
français: Tunisie
Frysk: Tuneezje
Gaeilge: An Túinéis
Gagauz: Tunis
Gàidhlig: Tuinisia
galego: Tunisia
Gĩkũyũ: Tunisia
ગુજરાતી: ટ્યુનિશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ट्युनिशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tunisia
한국어: 튀니지
Hausa: Tunisiya
Hawaiʻi: Tunisia
հայերեն: Թունիս
हिन्दी: तूनिसीया
hornjoserbsce: Tuneziska
hrvatski: Tunis
Ido: Tunizia
Igbo: Tunisia
Ilokano: Tunisia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তিউনিসিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Tunisia
interlingua: Tunisia
Interlingue: Tunisia
Ирон: Тунис
isiZulu: ITunisia
íslenska: Túnis
italiano: Tunisia
עברית: תוניסיה
Basa Jawa: Tunisia
Kabɩyɛ: Tuniizii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟುನೀಶಿಯ
Kapampangan: Tunisia
ქართული: ტუნისი
қазақша: Тунис
kernowek: Tunisi
Kinyarwanda: Tunisiya
Kiswahili: Tunisia
Kongo: Tunisia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tinizi
kurdî: Tûnis
Кыргызча: Тунис
кырык мары: Тунис
Ladino: Tunesia
Latina: Tunesia
latviešu: Tunisija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tunesien
lietuvių: Tunisas
Ligure: Tunixia
Limburgs: Tunesië
lingála: Tunisia
Lingua Franca Nova: Tunis
Livvinkarjala: Tunisu
la .lojban.: tunis
Luganda: Tunisia
lumbaart: Tünisia
magyar: Tunézia
македонски: Тунис
Malagasy: Tonizia
മലയാളം: ടുണീഷ്യ
Malti: Tuneżija
მარგალური: ტუნისი
مصرى: تونس
مازِرونی: تونس
Bahasa Melayu: Tunisia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tunisia
мокшень: Тунис
монгол: Тунис
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တူနီးရှားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Tunez
Nederlands: Tunesië
नेपाली: ट्युनिसिया
नेपाल भाषा: ट्युनिसिया
日本語: チュニジア
нохчийн: Тунис
Nordfriisk: Tuneesien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tunisia
norsk: Tunisia
norsk nynorsk: Tunisia
Novial: Tunisia
occitan: Tunisia
Oromoo: Tuniisiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tunis
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੁਨੀਸ਼ੀਆ
پنجابی: ٹیونس
Papiamentu: Tunesia
پښتو: تونس
Patois: Tunisia
Piemontèis: Tunisìa
Plattdüütsch: Tunesien
polski: Tunezja
Ποντιακά: Τυνησίαν
português: Tunísia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tunis
qırımtatarca: Tunis
română: Tunisia
rumantsch: Tunesia
Runa Simi: Tunisya
русиньскый: Тунис
русский: Тунис
саха тыла: Тунис
Gagana Samoa: Tunisia
संस्कृतम्: टुनिशिया
Sängö: Tunizïi
sardu: Tunisia
Scots: Tunisie
Seeltersk: Tunesien
Sesotho: Tunisia
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tunisia
shqip: Tunizia
sicilianu: Tunisìa
SiSwati: IThunisiya
slovenčina: Tunisko
slovenščina: Tunizija
ślůnski: Tůnezyjo
Soomaaliga: Tunisiya
کوردی: توونس
српски / srpski: Тунис
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tunis
Basa Sunda: Tunisia
suomi: Tunisia
svenska: Tunisien
Tagalog: Tunisia
தமிழ்: தூனிசியா
Taqbaylit: Tunes
татарча/tatarça: Тунис
తెలుగు: ట్యునీషియా
ትግርኛ: ቱኒዢያ
тоҷикӣ: Тунис
Türkçe: Tunus
Türkmençe: Tunis
Twi: Tunisia
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Tounes
українська: Туніс
اردو: تونس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۇنىس
vèneto: Tunixia
vepsän kel’: Tunis
Tiếng Việt: Tunisia
Volapük: Tünisän
Võro: Tuneesiä
walon: Tunizeye
文言: 突尼斯
Winaray: Tunisia
Wolof: Tiniisi
吴语: 突尼斯
Xitsonga: Tunisia
ייִדיש: טוניסיע
Yorùbá: Tùnísíà
粵語: 突尼西亞
Zazaki: Tunıs
žemaitėška: Tonėsos
中文: 突尼西亞