Soviet Union

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
State Emblem
Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!)
English: Workers of the world, unite!
Anthem: The Internationale (1922–1944)
National Anthem of the Soviet Union (1944-1991)
The Soviet Union after World War II
The Soviet Union after World War II
and largest city
Common languagesRussian, many others
General Secretary 
• 1922–1952
Joseph Stalin (first)
• 1991
Vladimir Ivashko (last)
Head of State 
• 1922–1938
Mikhail Kalinin (first)
• 1988–1991
Mikhail Gorbachev (last)
Head of Government 
• 1922–1924
Vladimir Lenin (first)
• 1991
Ivan Silayev (last)
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
Soviet of the Union
Soviet of Nationalities
Historical eraInterwar period / Cold War
• Treaty of Creation
30 December 1922
26 December 1991
199122,402,200 km2 (8,649,500 sq mi)
• 1991
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR) (SUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +13
Calling code7
Internet TLD.su2
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
1On 21 December 1991, eleven of the former socialist republics declared in Alma-Ata (with the 12th republic – Georgia – attending as an observer) that with the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ceases to exist.
2Assigned on 19 September 1990, existing onwards.
3The governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania view themselves as continuous and unrelated to the respective Soviet republics.
Russia views the Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian SSR's as legal constituent republics of the USSR and predecessors of the modern Baltic states.
The Government of the United States and a number of other countries did not recognize the annexation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the USSR as a legal inclusion.

The Soviet Union (short for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR) [1] was a single-party MarxistLeninist state. It existed from 1922 until 1991. It was the first country to declare itself socialist and build towards a communist society. It was a union of 14 Soviet Socialist Republics and one Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russia).

The Soviet Union was created about five years after the Russian Revolution. It was announced after Vladimir Lenin overthrew Alexander Kerensky as Russian leader. The communist government developed industry and over time became a major, powerful union. The largest country in the Union was Russia, and Kazakhstan was the second. The capital city of the Soviet Union was Moscow. The Soviet Union expanded its political control greatly after World War II. It took over the whole of Eastern Europe. Those countries were not made part of the Soviet Union, but they were controlled by the Soviet Union indirectly. These countries, like Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, were called satellite states.

Although the constitution said the Republics could leave the Union if they wanted, in practice it was a completely centralized government, with no states' rights for the member countries. Many believe[who?] that the Soviet Union was the final stage of the Russian Empire; since the USSR covered most of the land of the former Empire.

The Union was formed with the professed idea to give everyone equal social and economic rights. There was virtually no private property - everything belonged to the state. 'Soviets', or workers' councils were created to speak for the workers, and served as an elite group to govern them. It was successful in many fields; putting the first man and satellite into space and winning World War II alongside the United States and United Kingdom. However, its centralized government found innovation and change difficult to handle. The union collapsed in 1991, partly due to the efforts at reform by its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.

From 2013, the document that confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union is missing.[2]


Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year Новый Год  
March 8 International Women's Day Международный Женский День  
May 1-May 2 Day of International Solidarity of Labor people Первое Мая - День Международной Солидарности Трудящихся  
May 9 Victory Day День Победы Defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II in 1945
October 7 Constitution Day День Конституции since 1978
November 7 Great October Socialist Revolution Седьмое Ноября October Revolution 1917; it is currently called День Согласия и Примирения
Other Languages
Acèh: Uni Soviet
Afrikaans: Sowjetunie
Alemannisch: Sowjetunion
অসমীয়া: ছ'ভিয়েট সংঘ
авар: СССР
تۆرکجه: شوروی
Bân-lâm-gú: So͘-liân
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саюз Савецкіх Сацыялістычных Рэспублік
Boarisch: Sowjetunion
bosanski: Sovjetski Savez
Cebuano: Unyong Sobyet
čeština: Sovětský svaz
davvisámegiella: Sovjetlihttu
Deutsch: Sowjetunion
dolnoserbski: Sowjetski zwězk
English: Soviet Union
Esperanto: Sovetunio
estremeñu: Unión Soviética
føroyskt: Sovjetsamveldið
Frysk: Sovjet-Uny
贛語: 蘇聯
گیلکی: شؤروي
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌲𐌲𐌲𐌸
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sû-lièn
한국어: 소련
हिन्दी: सोवियत संघ
hornjoserbsce: Sowjetski zwjazk
hrvatski: Sovjetski Savez
Bahasa Indonesia: Uni Soviet
interlingua: Union Sovietic
Interlingue: Soviet-Union
íslenska: Sovétríkin
Basa Jawa: Uni Sovyèt
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: صؤوِت اِتِفاق
kernowek: URSS
Lëtzebuergesch: Sowjetunioun
lietuvių: Tarybų Sąjunga
Limburgs: Sovjet-Unie
la .lojban.: sofygu'e
magyar: Szovjetunió
македонски: Советски Сојуз
مازِرونی: شوروی
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sŭ-lièng
Nederlands: Sovjet-Unie
Nedersaksies: Sovjet-Unie
Napulitano: Aunione Sovieteca
Nordfriisk: Sowjetunion
norsk nynorsk: Sovjetunionen
پنجابی: سویت یونین
Papiamentu: Union Sovietiko
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហភាពសូវៀត
Picard: URSS
Plattdüütsch: Sowjetunion
português: União Soviética
rumantsch: Uniun sovietica
русиньскый: СССР
Seeltersk: Sowjetunion
slovenčina: Sovietsky zväz
slovenščina: Sovjetska zveza
Soomaaliga: Midowga Sofiyet
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sovjetski Savez
Basa Sunda: Uni Soviét
svenska: Sovjetunionen
Tagalog: Unyong Sobyet
тыва дыл: ССРЭ
Vahcuengh: Suhlienz
Tiếng Việt: Liên Xô
walon: URSS
文言: 蘇聯
West-Vlams: Sovjet-Unie
吴语: 苏联
粵語: 蘇聯
žemaitėška: Tarību Sājonga
中文: 苏联