Soviet Union
English: Soviet Union

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  • Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик
    Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik
1922–1991
State Emblem
Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
("Workers of the world, unite!")
Anthem: 
The Soviet Union during the Cold War
The Soviet Union during the Cold War
Republics of the Soviet Union :  1 Russia :  2 Ukraine :  3 Byelorussia :  4 Uzbekistan :  5 Kazakhstan :  6 Georgia :  7 Azerbaijan :  8 Lithuania :  9 Moldavia :  10 Latvia : Template:Country data Kyrgyz SSR :  12 Tajikistan :  13 Armenia :  14 Turkmenia :  15 Estonia
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750; 37.617
Official languagesRussian[1][1]
Recognised regional languages
Minority languages
Ethnic groups
  • 70% East Slavs
  • 12% Turkic
  • 18% other ethnic groups
Religion
Secular state (de jure)[2][3]
State atheism (de facto)
Demonym(s)Soviet
Government
Leader 
• 1922–24
Vladimir Lenin
• 1924–53
Joseph Stalin
• 1953–64
Nikita Khrushchev
• 1964–82
Leonid Brezhnev
• 1982–84
Yuri Andropov
• 1984–85
Konstantin Chernenko
• 1985–91
Mikhail Gorbachev
Premier 
• 1922–24 (first)
Vladimir Lenin
• 1991 (last)
Ivan Silayev
LegislatureSupreme Soviet (1938–1991)
Soviet of Nationalities
Soviet of the Union
Historical era20th century
• Treaty of Creation signed
30 December 1922
22 June 1941
9 May 1945
• Admitted
to the UN
24 October 1945
• Last constitution
adopted
9 October 1977
• Warsaw Pact
dissolved
1 July 1991
• Coup
19–22 August 1991
26 December 1991
Area
• Total
22,402,200 km2 (8,649,500 sq mi)
Population
• 1991 estimate
293 million (3rd)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)1990 estimate
• Total
$2.7 trillion[9] (2nd)
• Per capita
$9,200
GDP (nominal)1990 estimate
• Total
$2.7 trillion[9] (2nd)
• Per capita
$9,200 (28th)
Gini (1989)0.275
low
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Time zone(UTC+2 to +12)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeSU
Internet TLD[2]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bukharan PSR
Byelorussian SSR
Estonia
Finland
Khorezm PSR
Kingdom of Romania
Latvia
Lithuania
Nazi Germany
Russian SFSR
Second Polish Republic
Transcaucasian SFSR
Tuvan PR
Ukrainian SSR
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Estonia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Moldova
Russia
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Notes
  1. ^ Declaration № 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, formally establishing the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state and subject of international law. (Russian)
  2. ^ Original lyrics used from 1944 to 1956. No lyrics from 1956 to 1977. Revised lyrics from 1977 to 1991.
  3. ^ All-union official since 1990, constituent republics had the right to declare their own official languages.
  4. ^ Assigned on 19 September 1990, existing onwards.

The Soviet Union (short for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR) [10] was a single-party MarxistLeninist state. It existed from 1922 until 1991. It was the first country to declare itself socialist and build towards a communist society. It was a union of 14 Soviet Socialist Republics and one Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russia).

The Soviet Union was created about five years after the Russian Revolution. It was announced after Vladimir Lenin overthrew Alexander Kerensky as Russian leader. The communist government developed industry and over time became a major, powerful union. The largest country in the Union was Russia, and Kazakhstan was the second. The capital city of the Soviet Union was Moscow. The Soviet Union expanded its political control greatly after World War II. It took over the whole of Eastern Europe. Those countries were not made part of the Soviet Union, but they were controlled by the Soviet Union indirectly. These countries, like Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, were called satellite states.

The top-level committee which made the laws was the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. In practice, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the leader and most important decision-maker in their system of government.

Although the constitution said the Republics could leave the Union if they wanted, in practice it was a completely centralized government, with no states' rights for the member countries. Many believe[who?] that the Soviet Union was the final stage of the Russian Empire, since the USSR covered most of the land of the former Empire.

The Union was formed with the professed idea to give everyone equal social and economic rights. There was virtually no private property—everything belonged to the state. 'Soviets', or workers' councils, were created to speak for the workers, and served as an elite group to govern them. The Union was successful in many fields, putting the first man and satellite into space and winning World War II alongside the United States and United Kingdom. However, its centralized government found innovation and change difficult to handle. The Union collapsed in 1991, partly due to the efforts at reform by its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.

Since 2013, the document that confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union has been missing.[11]

Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year Новый Год  
March 8 International Women's Day Международный Женский День  
May 1-May 2 Day of International Solidarity of Labor people Первое Мая - День Международной Солидарности Трудящихся  
May 9 Victory Day День Победы Defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II in 1945
October 7 Constitution Day День Конституции since 1978
November 7 Great October Socialist Revolution Седьмое Ноября October Revolution 1917; it is currently called День Согласия и Примирения
Other Languages
Acèh: Uni Soviet
Afrikaans: Sowjetunie
Alemannisch: Sowjetunion
অসমীয়া: ছ'ভিয়েট সংঘ
авар: СССР
تۆرکجه: شوروی
Bân-lâm-gú: So͘-liân
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саюз Савецкіх Сацыялістычных Рэспублік
Boarisch: Sowjetunion
bosanski: Sovjetski Savez
Cebuano: Unyong Sobyet
čeština: Sovětský svaz
davvisámegiella: Sovjetlihttu
Deutsch: Sowjetunion
dolnoserbski: Sowjetski zwězk
English: Soviet Union
Esperanto: Sovetunio
estremeñu: Unión Soviética
føroyskt: Sovjetsamveldið
Frysk: Sovjet-Uny
贛語: 蘇聯
گیلکی: شؤروي
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌲𐌲𐌲𐌸
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sû-lièn
한국어: 소련
हिन्दी: सोवियत संघ
hornjoserbsce: Sowjetski zwjazk
hrvatski: Sovjetski Savez
Bahasa Indonesia: Uni Soviet
interlingua: Union Sovietic
Interlingue: Soviet-Union
íslenska: Sovétríkin
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: صؤوِت اِتِفاق
kernowek: URSS
Lëtzebuergesch: Sowjetunioun
lietuvių: Tarybų Sąjunga
Limburgs: Sovjet-Unie
la .lojban.: sofygu'e
magyar: Szovjetunió
македонски: Советски Сојуз
مازِرونی: شوروی
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sŭ-lièng
Nederlands: Sovjet-Unie
Nedersaksies: Sovjet-Unie
Napulitano: Aunione Sovieteca
Nordfriisk: Sowjetunioon
Norfuk / Pitkern: UoSSR
norsk nynorsk: Sovjetunionen
پنجابی: سویت یونین
Papiamentu: Union Sovietiko
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហភាពសូវៀត
Picard: URSS
Plattdüütsch: Sowjetunion
português: União Soviética
rumantsch: Uniun sovietica
Seeltersk: Sowjetunion
slovenčina: Sovietsky zväz
slovenščina: Sovjetska zveza
Soomaaliga: Midowga Sofiyet
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sovjetski Savez
svenska: Sovjetunionen
Tagalog: Unyong Sobyet
тыва дыл: ССРЭ
Vahcuengh: Suhlienz
Tiếng Việt: Liên Xô
walon: URSS
文言: 蘇聯
West-Vlams: Sovjet-Unie
吴语: 苏联
粵語: 蘇聯
žemaitėška: Tarību Sājonga
中文: 苏联