Soviet Union

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
1922–1991
State Emblem
State Emblem
Motto
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!)
English: Workers of the world, unite!
Anthem
The Internationale (1922–1944)
National Anthem of the Soviet Union (1944-1991)
The Soviet Union after World War II
CapitalMoscow
LanguagesRussian, many others
DemonymSoviet
Government
General Secretary
 • 1922–1952Joseph Stalin (first)
 • 1991Vladimir Ivashko (last)
Head of State
 • 1922–1938Mikhail Kalinin (first)
 • 1988–1991Mikhail Gorbachev (last)
Head of Government
 • 1922–1924Vladimir Lenin (first)
 • 1991Ivan Silayev (last)
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
 • Upper houseSoviet of the Union
 • Lower houseSoviet of Nationalities
Historical eraInterwar period / Cold War
 • Treaty of Creation30 December 1922
 • Union dissolved26 December 1991
Area
 • 199122,402,200 km2 (8,649,500 sq mi)
Population
 • 1991 est.293,047,571 
     Density13/km2 (34/sq mi)
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Internet TLD.su2
Calling code+7
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
Russia
Georgia
Ukraine
Moldova
Belarus
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Estonia3
Latvia3
Lithuania3
1On 21 December 1991, eleven of the former socialist republics declared in Alma-Ata (with the 12th republic – Georgia – attending as an observer) that with the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ceases to exist.

2Assigned on 19 September 1990, existing onwards.
3The governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania view themselves as continuous and unrelated to the respective Soviet republics.
Russia views the Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian SSR's as legal constituent republics of the USSR and predecessors of the modern Baltic states.
The Government of the United States and a number of other countries did not recognize the annexation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the USSR as a legal inclusion.

The Soviet Union (short for Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR) [1] was a single-party Marxist–Leninist state. It existed from 1922 until 1991, and was the first country to declare itself socialist and build towards a communist society. It was a union of 14 Soviet Socialist Republics and 1 Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russia).

The Soviet Union was created after Vladimir Lenin led the overthrow of Alexander Kerensky. The communist government developed industry and over time became a major, powerful union. The largest country in the Union was Russia, and Kazakhstan was the second. The capital city of the Soviet Union was Moscow. Although the constitution said the Republics could leave the Union if they wanted, in practice it was a completely centralized government, with no states' rights for the member countries. Many believe that the Soviet Union was the final stage of the Russian Empire; since the USSR covered most of the land of the former Empire.

The Union was formed with the professed idea to give everyone equal social and economic rights. There was virtually no private property - everything belonged to the state. "Soviets", or workers' councils were created to speak for the workers, and served as an elite group to govern them. It was successful in many fields; putting the first man and satellite into space and winning World War II alongside the United States and United Kingdom. However, its centralized government found innovation and change difficult to handle. The union collapsed in 1991, partly due to the efforts at reform by its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.

From 2016, the document that confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union is missing.

Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year Новый Год  
March 8 International Women's Day Международный Женский День  
May 1-May 2 Day of International Solidarity of Labor people Первое Мая - День Международной Солидарности Трудящихся  
May 9 Victory Day День Победы Defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II in 1945
October 7 Constitution Day День Конституции since 1978
November 7 Great October Socialist Revolution Седьмое Ноября October Revolution 1917; it is currently called День Согласия и Примирения
Other Languages
Acèh: Uni Soviet
Afrikaans: Sowjetunie
Alemannisch: Sowjetunion
অসমীয়া: ছ'ভিয়েট সংঘ
авар: СССР
تۆرکجه: شوروی
Bân-lâm-gú: So͘-liân
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саюз Савецкіх Сацыялістычных Рэспублік
Boarisch: Sowjetunion
bosanski: Sovjetski Savez
Cebuano: Unyong Sobyet
čeština: Sovětský svaz
davvisámegiella: Sovjetlihttu
Deutsch: Sowjetunion
dolnoserbski: Sowjetski zwězk
English: Soviet Union
Esperanto: Sovetunio
estremeñu: Unión Soviética
føroyskt: Sovjetsamveldið
Frysk: Sovjet-Uny
贛語: 蘇聯
گیلکی: شؤروي
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌲𐌲𐌲𐌸
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sû-lièn
한국어: 소련
हिन्दी: सोवियत संघ
hornjoserbsce: Sowjetski zwjazk
hrvatski: Sovjetski Savez
Bahasa Indonesia: Uni Soviet
interlingua: Union Sovietic
Interlingue: Soviet-Union
íslenska: Sovétríkin
Basa Jawa: Uni Sovyèt
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: صؤوِت اِتِفاق
kernowek: URSS
Lëtzebuergesch: Sowjetunioun
lietuvių: Tarybų Sąjunga
Limburgs: Sovjet-Unie
la .lojban.: sofygu'e
magyar: Szovjetunió
مازِرونی: شوروی
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sŭ-lièng
Nederlands: Sovjet-Unie
Nedersaksies: Sovjet-Unie
नेपाली: सोभियत संघ
Napulitano: Aunione Sovieteca
Nordfriisk: Sowjetunion
norsk nynorsk: Sovjetunionen
پنجابی: سویت یونین
Papiamentu: Union Sovietiko
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហភាពសូវៀត
Plattdüütsch: Sowjetunion
português: União Soviética
rumantsch: Uniun sovietica
русиньскый: СССР
Seeltersk: Sowjetunion
slovenčina: Sovietsky zväz
slovenščina: Sovjetska zveza
Soomaaliga: Midowga Sofiyet
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sovjetski Savez
Basa Sunda: Uni Soviét
svenska: Sovjetunionen
Tagalog: Unyong Sobyet
тыва дыл: ССРЭ
Vahcuengh: Suhlienz
Tiếng Việt: Liên Xô
walon: URSS
文言: 蘇聯
West-Vlams: Sovjet-Unie
吴语: 苏联
粵語: 蘇聯
žemaitėška: Tarību Sājonga
中文: 苏联