Philosophy

Portrait of Socrates, a Riyemz copy from a Greek statue, Louvre museum

Philosophy is a way of thinking about the world, the universe, and society. It works by asking very basic questions about the nature of human thought, the nature of the universe, and the connections between them. The ideas in philosophy are often general and abstract. But this does not mean that philosophy is not about the real world. Ethics, for example, asks about the ideas underlying our everyday lives. Metaphysics asks about how the world works and of what it is made.

Sometimes people talk about how they have a "personal philosophy", which means the way a person thinks about the world. This article is not about people's "personal philosophies". This article is about the ideas that have been discussed by philosophers (people who think and write about ways of thinking) for a long time.

One philosophical question is this: "Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?".[1] Other questions asked by philosophers are these:

History

The word "philosophy" comes from two Greek words, meaning "love of wisdom". φίλος (philos) adj. "beloved" + σοφία (sophia) fem. noun "wisdom".

There are different types of philosophy from different times and places. Some philosophers came from Ancient Greece, such as Plato and Aristotle. Others came from Asia, such as Confucius or Buddha. Some philosophers are from the Middle Ages in Europe, such as William of Ockham or Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Philosophers from the 1600s, 1700s, and 1800s included Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. Philosophers from the 1900s included Ludwig Wittgenstein and Jean-Paul Sartre.

Other Languages
Acèh: Kalam
Afrikaans: Filosofie
Alemannisch: Philosophie
አማርኛ: ፍልስፍና
Ænglisc: Ūðwitegung
العربية: فلسفة
aragonés: Filosofía
armãneashti: Filosofia
অসমীয়া: দৰ্শন
asturianu: Filosofía
Avañe'ẽ: Arandupykuaaty
Aymar aru: Lup'intawi
azərbaycanca: Fəlsəfə
تۆرکجه: فلسفه
বাংলা: দর্শন
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiat-ha̍k
башҡортса: Фәлсәфә
беларуская: Філасофія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Філязофія
भोजपुरी: दर्शन
Bislama: Filosofi
български: Философия
Boarisch: Philosophie
bosanski: Filozofija
brezhoneg: Prederouriezh
буряад: Гүн ухаан
català: Filosofia
Чӑвашла: Философи
Cebuano: Pilosopiya
čeština: Filosofie
corsu: Filosofia
Cymraeg: Athroniaeth
dansk: Filosofi
Deutsch: Philosophie
eesti: Filosoofia
Ελληνικά: Φιλοσοφία
English: Philosophy
español: Filosofía
Esperanto: Filozofio
estremeñu: Filosofia
euskara: Filosofia
فارسی: فلسفه
Fiji Hindi: Philosophy
føroyskt: Heimspeki
français: Philosophie
Frysk: Filosofy
furlan: Filosofie
Gaeilge: Fealsúnacht
Gaelg: Fallsoonys
Gàidhlig: Feallsanachd
galego: Filosofía
贛語: 哲學
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chet-ho̍k
한국어: 철학
Hausa: Falsafa
hrvatski: Filozofija
Ilokano: Pilosopia
Bahasa Indonesia: Filsafat
interlingua: Philosophia
Interlingue: Filosofie
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐅᕐᓂᖅ
isiXhosa: Ifilosofi
isiZulu: IFilosofi
íslenska: Heimspeki
italiano: Filosofia
עברית: פילוסופיה
Basa Jawa: Filsafat
Kabɩyɛ: Filozofii
ქართული: ფილოსოფია
kaszëbsczi: Filozofijô
қазақша: Философия
Kinyarwanda: Filozofi
Kiswahili: Falsafa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Filozofi
kurdî: Felsefe
Кыргызча: Философия
Ladino: Filosofia
Latina: Philosophia
latviešu: Filozofija
Lëtzebuergesch: Philosophie
лезги: Философия
lietuvių: Filosofija
Ligure: Filozofîa
Limburgs: Filosofie
Lingua Franca Nova: Filosofia
Livvinkarjala: Filosoufii
la .lojban.: pijyske
lumbaart: Filusufia
magyar: Filozófia
मैथिली: दर्शन
македонски: Филозофија
Malagasy: Filôzôfia
Malti: Filosofija
მარგალური: ფილოსოფია
مصرى: فلسفه
مازِرونی: فلسفه
Bahasa Melayu: Falsafah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Diék-hŏk
Mirandés: Filosofie
монгол: Гүн ухаан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သဘာဝတ္ထဗေဒ
Nederlands: Filosofie
Nedersaksies: Filesefie
नेपाली: दर्शन
नेपाल भाषा: दर्शन
日本語: 哲学
нохчийн: Философи
Nordfriisk: Filosofii
norsk: Filosofi
norsk nynorsk: Filosofi
Nouormand: Philosophie
Novial: Filosofia
occitan: Filosofia
олык марий: Философий
Oromoo: Falaasama
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Falsafa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦਰਸ਼ਨ
Pälzisch: Philosophie
پنجابی: فلاسفی
Papiamentu: Filosofia
پښتو: فلسفه
Patois: Filasafi
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទស្សនវិជ្ជា
Picard: Filosofie
Piemontèis: Filosofìa
Tok Pisin: Pilosopi
Plattdüütsch: Philosophie
polski: Filozofia
Ποντιακά: Φιλοσοφία
português: Filosofia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Filosofiya
română: Filozofie
rumantsch: Filosofia
Runa Simi: Yachay wayllukuy
русиньскый: Філозофія
русский: Философия
саха тыла: Философия
संस्कृतम्: तत्त्वज्ञानम्
Sängö: Sêndândarä
sardu: Filosofia
Scots: Filosofie
Seeltersk: Philosophie
Sesotho: Filosofi
shqip: Filozofia
sicilianu: Filusufìa
සිංහල: දර්ශනය
slovenčina: Filozofia
slovenščina: Filozofija
Soomaaliga: Filasoofiyada
کوردی: فەلسەفە
Sranantongo: Sabi fu denki
српски / srpski: Филозофија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Filozofija
Basa Sunda: Filsafat
suomi: Filosofia
svenska: Filosofi
Tagalog: Pilosopiya
Taqbaylit: Tafelsuft
татарча/tatarça: Фәлсәфә
తెలుగు: తత్వము
тоҷикӣ: Фалсафа
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ
Türkçe: Felsefe
Türkmençe: Filosofiýa
тыва дыл: Философия
українська: Філософія
اردو: فلسفہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پەلسەپە
Vahcuengh: Cwzyoz
vèneto: Fiłoxofìa
Tiếng Việt: Triết học
Volapük: Filosop
Võro: Filosoofia
walon: Filozofeye
文言: 哲學
Winaray: Filosofiya
Wolof: Xeltu
吴语: 哲學
Xitsonga: Filosofi
ייִדיש: פילאסאפיע
Yorùbá: Ìmòye
粵語: 哲學
Zazaki: Felsefe
Zeêuws: Filosofie
žemaitėška: Filosuopėjė
中文: 哲学