Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper.jpg
A 1656 Samuel Cooper portrait of Cromwell
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
In office
16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
Preceded byCouncil of State
Succeeded byRichard Cromwell
Member of Parliament
for Cambridge
In office
MonarchCharles I
Member of Parliament
for Huntingdon
In office
MonarchCharles I
Personal details
Born25 April 1599
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, Kingdom of England
Died3 September 1658 (aged 59)
Palace of Whitehall, London, The Protectorate
Resting placeTyburn, London
Elizabeth Bourchier (m. 1620)
  • Robert
  • Oliver
  • Bridget
  • Richard
  • Henry
  • Elizabeth
  • James
  • Mary
  • Frances
  • Robert Cromwell (father)
  • Elizabeth Steward (mother)
Alma materSidney Sussex College, Cambridge
OccupationFarmer, parliamentarian, military commander
Military service
Nickname(s)Old Noll;[1] Old Ironsides
Branch/serviceEastern Association (1643–1645); New Model Army (1645–1646)
Years of service1643–1651
RankColonel (1643 – bef. 1644); Lieutenant-General of Horse (bef. 1644–1645); Lieutenant-General of Cavalry (1645–1646)
CommandsCambridgeshire Ironsides (1643 – bef. 1644); Eastern Association (bef. 1644–1645); New Model Army (1645–1646)
Battles/warsEnglish Civil War (1642–1651):
  • Gainsborough
  • Marston Moor
  • Newbury II
  • Naseby
  • Langport
  • Preston
  • Dunbar
  • Worcester
Royal styles of
Oliver Cromwell,
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg
Reference styleHis Highness
Spoken styleYour Highness
Alternative styleSir

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England.

Cromwell's actions during his career seem confusing to us today. He supported Parliament against the King, yet he ordered his soldiers to break up parliament. Under his rule, the Protectorate said that people's religious beliefs should be respected, but people who went against what most people believed were sometimes tortured and imprisoned.

Cromwell was the first ruler of England to be a Puritan. He created a new model army. Many English people today think he was one of their greatest leaders, and many Irish people still hate him.

Early life

Cromwell started off as a gentleman from Huntingdon. He first studied at Huntingdon Grammar School. He had a bad relationship with his father. He went on to Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge. This was a new, small college where he had the chance to talk about his new Puritan ideas. However, he never took a degree because his father died in 1617 while he was studying.[2]

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Afrikaans: Oliver Cromwell
asturianu: Oliver Cromwell
azərbaycanca: Oliver Kromvel
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беларуская: Олівер Кромвель
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Олівэр Кромўэл
български: Оливър Кромуел
bosanski: Oliver Cromwell
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latviešu: Olivers Kromvels
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македонски: Оливер Кромвел
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português: Oliver Cromwell
română: Oliver Cromwell
संस्कृतम्: आलिवर क्रामवेल
slovenčina: Oliver Cromwell
slovenščina: Oliver Cromwell
српски / srpski: Оливер Кромвел
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Oliver Cromwell
Türkçe: Oliver Cromwell
українська: Олівер Кромвель
Vahcuengh: Oliver Cromwell
Tiếng Việt: Oliver Cromwell
Xitsonga: Oliver Cromwell
粵語: 克倫威爾