Neuron

Diagram of neuron

A neuron (also called neurone or nerve cell) is a cell that carries electrical impulses.[1] Neurons are the basic units of the nervous system and its most important part is the brain.

Every neuron is made of a cell body (also called a soma), dendrites and an axon.[1] Dendrites and axons are nerve fibres. There are about 86 billion neurons in the human brain, which comprises roughly 10% of all brain cells. The neurons are supported by glial cells and astrocytes.

Neurons are connected to one another and tissues. They do not touch and instead form tiny gaps called synapses. These gaps can be chemical synapses or electrical synapses and pass the signal from one neuron to the next.

Types of neurons

By connection

There are three classes of neurons: afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons.

By function

Sensory neurons carry signals from sense organs to the spinal cord and brain.

Relay neurons carry messages from one part of the CNS.

Motor neurons carry signals from the CNS to muscles, motor neurons are connected to the relay neurons. The signal passes between the neurons via synapses. Synapses are microscopic voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized chemical receptors on the dendrite of the receiving cell.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Neuron
Alemannisch: Nervenzelle
العربية: عصبون
aragonés: Neurona
অসমীয়া: স্নায়ুকোষ
asturianu: Neurona
azərbaycanca: Neyron
беларуская: Нейрон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нэўрон
български: Неврон
Boarisch: Neiron
bosanski: Neuron
català: Neurona
čeština: Neuron
Cymraeg: Niwron
dansk: Neuron
Deutsch: Nervenzelle
eesti: Neuron
Ελληνικά: Νευρώνας
English: Neuron
español: Neurona
Esperanto: Neŭrono
euskara: Neurona
français: Neurone
Gaeilge: Néarón
galego: Neurona
한국어: 신경 세포
հայերեն: Նեյրոն
हिन्दी: न्यूरॉन
hrvatski: Neuron
Ido: Neurono
Bahasa Indonesia: Sel saraf
íslenska: Taugafruma
italiano: Neurone
עברית: תא עצב
Basa Jawa: Sèl Saraf
ქართული: ნეირონი
Kiswahili: Nyuroni
Kreyòl ayisyen: Newòn
Кыргызча: Нейрон
кырык мары: Вимгӹ
Latina: Neuron
latviešu: Neirons
lietuvių: Neuronas
magyar: Idegsejt
македонски: Неврон
Malagasy: Nerônina
മലയാളം: നാഡീകോശം
मराठी: चेतापेशी
მარგალური: ნეირონი
Bahasa Melayu: Neuron
монгол: Нейрон
Nederlands: Zenuwcel
日本語: 神経細胞
norsk: Nevron
norsk nynorsk: Nerveselle
occitan: Neuròna
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Neyron (nerv hujayrasi)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਰਵ ਸੈੱਲ
پنجابی: نیوران
پښتو: نيورون
Piemontèis: Nevron
polski: Neuron
português: Neurónio
română: Neuron
русский: Нейрон
Scots: Neuron
Seeltersk: Näärwensälle
سنڌي: تنتون
slovenčina: Neurón
slovenščina: Nevron
српски / srpski: Неурон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Neuron
suomi: Neuroni
svenska: Nervcell
Tagalog: Neuron
தமிழ்: நரம்பணு
Türkçe: Sinir hücresi
українська: Нейрон
اردو: عصبون
Tiếng Việt: Nơron
ייִדיש: ניוראן
粵語: 神經細胞
中文: 神經元