Kansas
English: Kansas

State of Kansas
Flag of KansasState seal of Kansas
FlagSeal
Nickname(s):
The Sunflower State (official);
The Wheat State [1]
The Jayhawker State [1]
The Free State [2]
Motto(s): Ad astra per aspera (Latin for To the stars through difficulties)
State song(s): "Home on the Range"
Map of the United States with Kansas highlighted
Official languageEnglish[3]
DemonymKansan
CapitalTopeka
Largest cityWichita
Largest metroKansas portion of Kansas City, Missouri metropolitan area
AreaRanked 15th
 • Total82,278[4] sq mi
(213,100 km2)
 • Width410[5] miles (660 km)
 • Length213[5] miles (343 km)
 • % water0.6[6]
 • Latitude37° N to 40° N
 • Longitude94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W
PopulationRanked 35th
 • Total2,911,505 (2018)
 • Density34.9/sq mi  (13.5/km2)
Ranked 40th
 • Median household income$56,422[7] (31st[8])
Elevation
 • Highest pointMount Sunflower[9][10]
4,041 ft (1232 m)
 • Mean2,000 ft  (610 m)
 • Lowest pointVerdigris River at Oklahoma border[9][10]
679 ft (207 m)
Before statehoodKansas Territory
Admission to UnionJanuary 29, 1861
Kansas Day (34th)
GovernorLaura Kelly (D)
Lieutenant GovernorLynn Rogers (D)
LegislatureKansas Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsPat Roberts (R)
Jerry Moran (R)
U.S. House delegation1: Roger Marshall (R)
2: Steve Watkins (R)
3: Sharice Davids (D)
4: Ron Estes (R) (list)
Time zones 
 • Majority of stateCentral: UTC −6/−5
 • Greeley, Hamilton, Sherman, and Wallace countiesMountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166US-KS
AbbreviationsKS, portal.kansas.gov
Kansas state symbols
Flag of Kansas.svg
Seal of Kansas.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianBarred tiger salamander
BirdWestern meadowlark
FlowerWild sunflower
GrassLittle bluestem
InsectWestern honey bee
MammalAmerican bison
ReptileOrnate box turtle
TreePlains cottonwood
Inanimate insignia
SoilHarney silt loam (unofficial)
State route marker
Kansas state route marker
State quarter
Kansas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

Kansas (pronounced /kăn'zəs/)[11] is a state in the Midwestern United States of America. Kansas has a total population of 2.9 million, with an area of 82,000 sq mi (212,379 km2), making Kansas the 34th largest state by population and the 15th largest state by area. The name of the state comes from the Kansa Native Americans, whose name comes from a Siouan-language phrase meaning "people of the south wind".[12] The land that would become Kansas was bought in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Kansas became the 34th state to be admitted to the United States on January 29, 1861. Kansas' capital is Topeka, and its largest city is Wichita.

Kansas is in a region known as America's Breadbasket. Like other states in this area, Kansas is a large producer of wheat and other grains, producing one-fifth of all wheat grown in the United States.[13] In addition to wheat, Kansas produces large amounts of grain sorghum, summer potatoes, and sunflowers,[14] with other industries in Kansas including aviation and communications.

The terrain of Kansas consists of prairies and forests. All of Kansas is in the Great Plains.

History

Early history

In 1539, Marcos de Niza, a friar,[15] reported rumors of Cíbola, a city of gold, to Spanish colonial officials in Mexico City. Niza said the city was in modern-day New Mexico.[16] In response to the rumors, two years later, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado,with an army of 3000 Spaniards and 8001 Mexicans, marched northward from Culiacán in hopes of finding the city.When Coronado did not find the city in New Mexico, he continued northeast into the Mississippi Valley, crossing the present area of Kansas diagonally. This made Conrado and his army the first Europeans to see the Great Plains, including Kansas.[17] Later, Juan de Oñate also traveled to Kansas in 1601.[15]

In 1682, Marquette, Joliet, Hennepin and other French leaders took formal control of the Mississippi Valley, including the land that would become Kansas. This land, known as the Louisiana territory, was used to organize trade with Native Americans. In 1762, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. However, in 1801, Spain receded the territory back to France in the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso.[15] On April 30, 1803, Napoleon sold the Louisiana territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.[15][18][19] In the early 1800s, Kansas was used to hold Native Americans that were removed from their native lands.[20]

Statehood

On May 30, 1854, the Congress signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Kansas-Nebraska Act stated that Kansas and Nebraska were both territories of the United States.[21][22] It also stated that Kansans would vote on the legality of slavery.[23]

Upon hearing this, about 1,200 armed New Englanders came to Kansas to vote against slavery. However, thousands of southerners, mostly from Missouri, came to vote for slavery.[23] The final vote was to make slavery legal, and Kansas adopted most of Missouri's slave laws. There was fighting between Southerners and Northerners in Kansas. In one fight, John Brown and his men killed five people in the Pottawatomie Massacre. Later, Southerners destroyed Lawrence, Kansas. Kansas was called "Bleeding Kansas".

Between 1854 and 1861, Kansas proposed four state constitutions. Out of the four proposed constitutions, three did not allow slavery.[24] Finally, in July 1859, Kansas passed the Wyandotte Constitution, which was anti-slavery.[25][26] The constitution for statehood was sent to the U.S. government in April 1860 to be voted on. The constitution was passed by the House of Representatives, but rejected by the Senate.[27] This is because southern voters in the Senate did not like that Kansas would become a state without slavery. In 1861, after the Confederate states formed, the constitution gained approval from the Union, and Kansas became a state.[20][23][27][28]

Kansas in the Civil War

The Lawrence Massacre on August 21, 1863

Four months after Kansas became a state, the Civil War started.[29] Out of the 381 battles in the Civil War, four were fought in Kansas.[30] Throughout the war, Kansas remained a Union state.

On August 21, 1863, William Clarke Quantrill led a force of 300 to 400 Confederates into the town of Lawrence, Kansas.[31] Quantrill and his troops burned, looted, and destroyed the anti-slavery town. This battle became known as the Lawrence Massacre. In total, 164 Union soldiers and 40 Confederate soldiers died in the Lawrence Massacre.[31] In the Battle of Mine Creek, on October 25, 1864, Union soldiers attacked Confederates as they were crossing the Mine Creek. The Union surrounded the Confederates, and captured 600 men and two generals. 1,000 Confederate soldiers and 100 Union soldiers died in the battle.[32] In total, 8,500 people from Kansas died or were wounded in the Civil War.[12]

Post Civil War

After the Civil War, many free slaves came to Oklahoma and Kansas. In fact, between the years of 1879 and 1881, about 60,000 African Americans came to this region.[33][34] This is because the slaves wanted economic opportunities, which they believed awaited them in Kansas. African Americans also came to Kansas for better political rights and to escape sharecropping.[34] These people were called "Exodusters."

Recent history

Dust Bowl

From 1930 to 1936, Kansas went through a period of time called the Dust Bowl. During this time, Kansas had little rainfall and high temperatures. Thousands of farmers became very poor and had to move to other parts of the United States. In total, 400,000 people left the Great Plains area.[35] The years from 1930 to 1940 was the only time the population of Kansas went down. The number of people living in Kansas decreased 4.3 percent.[36]

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

During the 1950s, school segregation was required in fifteen U.S states. However, Kansas was not one of these states.[37] Instead, school segregation was permitted by local option, but only in elementary schools.[38] In 1896, the ruling from Plessy v. Ferguson stated that segregation was allowed, but equal facilities should be made available for blacks and whites.[39] Often, however, black schools received less funding and had fewer textbooks than white schools.[40]

For these reasons, Linda Brown and her family sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Brown won the case, and the ruling was to overturn the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.[41] This was considered by many a landmark case in the civil rights movement.[39][41][42]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kansas
አማርኛ: ካንሳስ
Ænglisc: Kansas
العربية: كانساس
aragonés: Kansas
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܐܢܣܐܣ
arpetan: Kansas
asturianu: Kansas
Avañe'ẽ: Kansas
Aymar aru: Kansas suyu
azərbaycanca: Kanzas
Bân-lâm-gú: Kansas
башҡортса: Канзас
беларуская: Канзас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Канзас
भोजपुरी: कंसास
Bikol Central: Kansas
Bislama: Kansas
български: Канзас
Boarisch: Kansas
བོད་ཡིག: ཁན་སཱ་སི།
bosanski: Kansas
brezhoneg: Kansas
буряад: Канзас
català: Kansas
Чӑвашла: Канзас
Cebuano: Kansas
čeština: Kansas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Kansas
corsu: Kansas
Cymraeg: Kansas
dansk: Kansas
davvisámegiella: Kansas
Deutsch: Kansas
eesti: Kansas
Ελληνικά: Κάνσας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Kànsas
English: Kansas
español: Kansas
Esperanto: Kansaso
euskara: Kansas
فارسی: کانزاس
Fiji Hindi: Kansas
føroyskt: Kansas
français: Kansas
Frysk: Kansas
Gaeilge: Kansas
Gaelg: Kansas
Gagauz: Kansas
Gàidhlig: Kansas
galego: Kansas
ગુજરાતી: કેન્સાસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kansas
хальмг: Канзас
한국어: 캔자스주
Hausa: Kansas
Hawaiʻi: Kanekaka
հայերեն: Կանզաս
हिन्दी: केन्सास
hornjoserbsce: Kansas
hrvatski: Kansas
Ido: Kansas
Igbo: Kánzạs
Ilokano: Kansas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ক্যানসাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Kansas
interlingua: Kansas
Interlingue: Kansas
Iñupiak: Kansas
Ирон: Канзас
isiXhosa: IKhanzasi
íslenska: Kansas
italiano: Kansas
עברית: קנזס
Jawa: Kansas
Kabɩyɛ: Kanzasii
Kapampangan: Kansas
ქართული: კანზასი
қазақша: Канзас
kernowek: Kansas
Kiswahili: Kansas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kannzas
kurdî: Kansas
кырык мары: Канзас
Ladino: Kansas
لۊری شومالی: کانزاس
Latina: Kansia
latviešu: Kanzasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Kansas
lietuvių: Kanzasas
Ligure: Kansas
Limburgs: Kansas
Lingua Franca Nova: Kansas
la .lojban.: kanzys
lumbaart: Kansas
magyar: Kansas
मैथिली: कन्सास
македонски: Канзас
Malagasy: Kansas
മലയാളം: കാൻസസ്
Māori: Kansas
मराठी: कॅन्सस
მარგალური: კანზასი
مصرى: كانساس
مازِرونی: کانزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Kansas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kansas
монгол: Канзас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကန်းဆပ်ပြည်နယ်
Dorerin Naoero: Kansas
Nederlands: Kansas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Kansas
नेपाली: कन्सास
नेपाल भाषा: कान्सास
日本語: カンザス州
нохчийн: Канзас
Nordfriisk: Kansas
norsk: Kansas
norsk nynorsk: Kansas
occitan: Kansas
олык марий: Канзас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kanzas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਂਸਸ
پنجابی: کنساس
Papiamentu: Kansas
پښتو: کانزاس
Piemontèis: Kansas
Plattdüütsch: Kansas
polski: Kansas
português: Kansas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kanzas (shtat)
română: Kansas
rumantsch: Kansas
Runa Simi: Kansas suyu
русский: Канзас
саха тыла: Канзас
संस्कृतम्: केन्‍सास
sardu: Kansas
Scots: Kansas
Seeltersk: Kansas
shqip: Kanzas
sicilianu: Kansas
slovenčina: Kansas (štát USA)
slovenščina: Kansas
ślůnski: Kansas
کوردی: کانزاس
српски / srpski: Канзас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kanzas
suomi: Kansas
svenska: Kansas
Tagalog: Kansas
தமிழ்: கேன்சஸ்
Taqbaylit: Kansas
татарча/tatarça: Канзас
తెలుగు: కాన్సాస్
тоҷикӣ: Канзас
Tsetsêhestâhese: Kansas
Türkçe: Kansas
українська: Канзас
اردو: کنساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kanzas Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Kansas
Volapük: Kansas
文言: 堪薩斯州
Winaray: Kansas
吴语: 堪萨斯州
ייִדיש: קענזעס
Yorùbá: Kansas
粵語: 干沙州
Zazaki: Kansas
Zeêuws: Kansas
žemaitėška: Kanzasos
中文: 堪薩斯州