Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar Hāshemī Rafanjānī), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) (August 25, 1934 – January 8, 2017) was an influential Iranian politician. He has been the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran from 1989 until his death in 2017.
Forbes magazine listed Rafsanjani in their list of richest people in the world and has written that as the real power behind the Iranian government, he "has more or less run the Islamic Republic for the past 24 years."  His wealth has earned him the infamous nickname of Akbar Shah in Iran.
He served as President of Iran from 1989 to 1997, losing on the second ballot to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the 2005 election on his attempt for a third term in office. After this, he has tried to use his position in the Expediency Council to denounce President Ahmadinejad's administration. He said he would do some privatizations and change foreign policy. However, President Ahmadinejad has noted Rafsanjani's failure to make a difference between privatization and self takeover of government-owned companies. Ahmadinejad has also commmented on the foreign policies of Rafsanjani's administration which lead to sanctions against Iran in 1995 and 1996.
Currently, one of his sons has been accused of receiving a bribe. Analysts expect that his son will not be put on trial, however.
Rafsanjani died on January 8, 2017 in Tehran from a heart attack, aged 82.