Chinese language

  • chinese
    汉语/漢語华语/華語 or 中文
    hànyǔ, huáyǔ or zhōngwén
    hanyu trad simp.svg
    hànyǔ (chinese) written in hanzi
    native topeople's republic of china (prc, commonly known as china), republic of china (roc, commonly known as taiwan), canada, peru, thailand, vietnam, malaysia, brunei, singapore, indonesia, mauritius, australia, the united states, the philippines and other places with chinese communities
    native speakers
    (1.2 billion cited 1984–2000)[1]
    language family
    sino-tibetan
    • sinitic
      • chinese
    standard forms
    mandarin
    dialects
    • mandarin
    • jin
    • huizhou
    • wu (including shanghainese)
    • hunanese
    • jiangxinese
    • hakka
    • yue (including cantonese-taishanese)
    • pinghua
    • shaojiang
    • northern min
    • eastern min (including fuchow)
    • central min
    • pu xian
    • southern min (including amoy, taiwanese)
    • teochew (including swatow, chaozhou, jieyang, parts of shanwei/meizhou)
    writing system
    chinese characters, zhuyin fuhao, pinyin, xiao'erjing
    official status
    official language in
     united nations

     people's republic of china
     republic of china (taiwan)
     singapore (one of four official languages)
    wa state (alongside the wa language)

     brunei
    recognised minority
    language in
     united states (minority and auxiliary)
     malaysia (minority and auxiliary)
     philippines (minority and auxiliary)
    regulated byin the prc: national commission on language and script work[2]
    in the roc: national languages committee
    in singapore: promote mandarin council/ speak mandarin campaign[3]
    language codes
    zh
    zho (t)
    iso 639-3zho – cdo –  cjy –  cmn – cpx –  czh –  czo –  gan –  hak – hsn –  mnp –  nan – wuu – yue – och –  ltc – lzh – classical chinese
    linguasphere79-aaa
    new-map-sinophone world.png
    map of the sinophone world.

    information:      countries identified chinese as a primary, administrative or native language      countries with more than 5,000,000 chinese speakers      countries with more than 1,000,000 chinese speakers      countries with more than 500,000 chinese speakers      countries with more than 100,000 chinese speakers

         major chinese speaking settlements
    chinese languages (spoken)
    traditional chinese漢語
    simplified chinese汉语
    literal meaninghan language
    chinese language (written)
    chinese中文
    literal meaningchinese text

    the chinese language is the group of languages used by chinese people in china and elsewhere. it forms part of a language family called the sino-tibetan family of languages.

    chinese includes many regional language varieties, the main ones being mandarin, wu, yue and min. these are not mutually intelligible[4] and many of the regional varieties are themselves a number of non-mutually-intelligible subvarieties.[5] as a result, many linguists refer to these varieties as separate languages.[6]

    'chinese' can refer to the written or the spoken languages. although there are many spoken chinese languages, they use the same writing system.[7] differences in speaking are reflected in differences in writing. official china adopts a similar policy to the one in the soviet union, using one official language so people can understand each other. the standard chinese language is referred to as mandarin in english, "pǔtōnghuà" or "common to everybody speech" in mainland china and "guóyǔ" or "language of the whole country" in taiwan. all official documents are written in mandarin and mandarin is taught all over china. it is also a standard for language teaching in some other countries.

    chinese is used by the han people in china and other ethnic groups in china who are declared chinese by the chinese government. chinese is almost always written in chinese characters. they are symbols that have meaning, called logograms. they also give some indication of pronunciation, but the same character can get very different pronunciations among the different kinds of chinese. since chinese characters have been around for at least 3500 years, people in places far from each other say them differently, just as "1, 2, 3" can be read differently in different languages.

    chinese people needed to write down pronunciations in dictionaries. chinese does not have an alphabet, so how to write down sounds was a big problem in the beginning. nowadays the mandarin language uses hanyu pinyin to represent the sounds in roman letters.

    all the chinese languages (or dialects) use tones. this means that they use high and low pitches to help make differences in meaning clear.

  • different languages or dialects of chinese
  • traditional and simplified characters
  • examples
  • related pages
  • references
  • other websites

Chinese
汉语/漢語华语/華語 or 中文
Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ or Zhōngwén
Hanyu trad simp.svg
Hànyǔ (Chinese) written in Hanzi
Native toPeople's Republic of China (PRC, commonly known as China), Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan), Canada, Peru, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, Mauritius, Australia, the United States, the Philippines and other places with Chinese communities
Native speakers
(1.2 billion cited 1984–2000)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
  • Sinitic
    • Chinese
Standard forms
Dialects
  • Mandarin
  • Jin
  • Huizhou
  • Wu (including Shanghainese)
  • Hunanese
  • Jiangxinese
  • Hakka
  • Yue (including Cantonese-Taishanese)
  • Pinghua
  • Shaojiang
  • Northern Min
  • Eastern Min (including Fuchow)
  • Central Min
  • Pu Xian
  • Southern Min (including Amoy, Taiwanese)
  • Teochew (including Swatow, Chaozhou, Jieyang, parts of Shanwei/Meizhou)
Chinese characters, zhuyin fuhao, pinyin, Xiao'erjing
Official status
Official language in
 United Nations

 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
 Singapore (one of four official languages)
Wa State (alongside the Wa language)

 Brunei
Recognised minority
language in
 United States (minority and auxiliary)
 Malaysia (minority and auxiliary)
 Philippines (minority and auxiliary)
Regulated byIn the PRC: National Commission on Language and Script Work[2]
In the ROC: National Languages Committee
In Singapore: Promote Mandarin Council/ Speak Mandarin Campaign[3]
Language codes
zh
zho (T)
ISO 639-3zho – cdo –  cjy –  cmn – cpx –  czh –  czo –  gan –  hak – hsn –  mnp –  nan – wuu – yue – och –  ltc – lzh – Classical Chinese
Linguasphere79-AAA
New-Map-Sinophone World.PNG
Map of the Sinophone world.

Information:      Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative or native language      Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers      Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers      Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers      Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers

     Major Chinese speaking settlements
Chinese languages (Spoken)
Traditional Chinese漢語
Simplified Chinese汉语
Literal meaningHan language
Chinese language (Written)
Chinese中文
Literal meaningChinese text

The Chinese language is the group of languages used by Chinese people in China and elsewhere. It forms part of a language family called the Sino-Tibetan family of languages.

Chinese includes many regional language varieties, the main ones being Mandarin, Wu, Yue and Min. These are not mutually intelligible[4] and many of the regional varieties are themselves a number of non-mutually-intelligible subvarieties.[5] As a result, many linguists refer to these varieties as separate languages.[6]

'Chinese' can refer to the written or the spoken languages. Although there are many spoken Chinese languages, they use the same writing system.[7] Differences in speaking are reflected in differences in writing. Official China adopts a similar policy to the one in the Soviet Union, using one official language so people can understand each other. The Standard Chinese language is referred to as Mandarin in English, "Pǔtōnghuà" or "common to everybody speech" in mainland China and "Guóyǔ" or "language of the whole country" in Taiwan. All official documents are written in Mandarin and Mandarin is taught all over China. It is also a standard for language teaching in some other countries.

Chinese is used by the Han people in China and other ethnic groups in China who are declared Chinese by the Chinese government. Chinese is almost always written in Chinese characters. They are symbols that have meaning, called logograms. They also give some indication of pronunciation, but the same character can get very different pronunciations among the different kinds of Chinese. Since Chinese characters have been around for at least 3500 years, people in places far from each other say them differently, just as "1, 2, 3" can be read differently in different languages.

Chinese people needed to write down pronunciations in dictionaries. Chinese does not have an alphabet, so how to write down sounds was a big problem in the beginning. Nowadays the Mandarin language uses Hanyu Pinyin to represent the sounds in Roman letters.

All the Chinese languages (or dialects) use tones. This means that they use high and low pitches to help make differences in meaning clear.

Other Languages
Acèh: Bahsa Cina
Адыгэбзэ: Хъутеибзэ
Afrikaans: Chinees
አማርኛ: ቻይንኛ
aragonés: Idioma chinés
Արեւմտահայերէն: Չինարէն
অসমীয়া: চীনা ভাষা
asturianu: Idioma chinu
Avañe'ẽ: Chinañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Çin dili
تۆرکجه: چین دیلی
বাংলা: চীনা ভাষা
Bân-lâm-gú: Hàn-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Cina
башҡортса: Ҡытай теле
беларуская: Кітайская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітайская мова
भोजपुरी: चीनी भाषा
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Intsik
български: Китайски език
Boarisch: Kinäsisch
བོད་ཡིག: རྒྱ་སྐད།
bosanski: Kineski jezik
brezhoneg: Yezhoù sinaek
буряад: Хитад хэлэн
Чӑвашла: Китай чĕлхи
Cebuano: Inintsik
čeština: Čínština
Cymraeg: Tsieineeg
davvisámegiella: Kiinnágiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނީ
dolnoserbski: Chinšćina
eesti: Hiina keel
español: Idioma chino
Esperanto: Ĉina lingvaro
estremeñu: Luenga china
euskara: Txinera
Fiji Hindi: Chinese bhasa
føroyskt: Kinesiskt mál
Frysk: Sineesk
Gaeilge: An tSínis
Gàidhlig: Sìonais
贛語: 漢語
ગુજરાતી: ચાઇનીઝ ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hon-ngî
хальмг: Китдин келн
한국어: 중국어
Hausa: Sinanci
հայերեն: Չինարեն
हिन्दी: चीनी भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Chinšćina
hrvatski: Kineski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Tionghoa
isiZulu: IsiShayina
íslenska: Kínverska
italiano: Lingua cinese
Jawa: Basa Cina
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚೀನಿ ಭಾಷೆ
ქართული: ჩინური ენა
қазақша: Қытай тілі
kernowek: Chinek
Kinyarwanda: Gishinwa
Kiswahili: Kichina
Kongo: Kisinwá
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lanng chinwaz
Кыргызча: Кытай тили
لۊری شومالی: زڤون چینی
лезги: Китай чIал
lietuvių: Kinų kalba
Limburgs: Chinees
lingála: Lisinwa
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas xines
Livvinkarjala: Kitain kieli
la .lojban.: jugbau
lumbaart: Lengua cinesa
magyar: Kínai nyelv
मैथिली: चीनी भाषा
македонски: Кинески јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny sinoa
മലയാളം: ചൈനീസ് ഭാഷ
मराठी: चिनी भाषा
მარგალური: ჩინური ნინა
مصرى: لغه صينى
مازِرونی: چینی زوونون
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Cina
Minangkabau: Bahaso Cino
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Háng-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Lhéngua chinesa
монгол: Хятад хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တရုတ်ဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Chinatlahtolli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerit Tsiene
Nederlands: Chinese talen
नेपाल भाषा: चिनिया भाषा
日本語: 中国語
нохчийн: Цийн мотт
norsk: Kinesisk
norsk nynorsk: Kinesisk
Novial: Chinum
occitan: Chinés
Oromoo: Chaayiniffa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚੀਨੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
پنجابی: چینی
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាចិន
Picard: Chinoés
Plattdüütsch: Chineesche Spraak
português: Língua chinesa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay tili
qırımtatarca: Çin tili
reo tahiti: Reo Tinitō
română: Limba chineză
Runa Simi: Chun simi
русиньскый: Кітайскый язык
саха тыла: Кытай тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asaina
संस्कृतम्: चीनी भाषा
Sängö: Shinuäa
Sesotho: Se-china
Sesotho sa Leboa: Setšhaena
sicilianu: Lingua cinisa
slovenčina: Čínština
slovenščina: Kitajščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдиньскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Chińskŏ gŏdka
српски / srpski: Кинески језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kineski jezik
svenska: Kinesiska
Tagalog: Wikang Tsino
தமிழ்: சீன மொழி
татарча/tatarça: Кытай теле
తెలుగు: చైనీస్ భాష
ትግርኛ: ቻይንኛ
тоҷикӣ: Забони чинӣ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Chinese
Türkçe: Çince
Türkmençe: Hytaý dili
Twi: Chinese
українська: Китайська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: خەنزۇ تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vahgun
vepsän kel’: Kitajan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinänapük
Võro: Hiina kiil
文言: 漢語
吴语: 漢語
ייִדיש: כינעזיש
粵語: 唐文
Zazaki: Çinki
žemaitėška: Kėnu kalba
中文: 汉语