Aube is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 with Troyes as is capital. It was divided in six districts: Nogent-sur-Seine, Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Seine, Ervy and Troyes.
In 1800, with the creation of the arrondissements in France, the six districts were changed into five arrondissements: Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Seine, Nogent-sur-Seine and Troyes.
After the Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815), the department was occupied by the Russian army from June 1815 to November 1818.
On 10 September 1926, the arrondissements of Arcis-sur-Aube et Bar-sur-Seine were eliminated.