Iran
English: Iran

Islamic Republic o Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران (Persie)
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Motto: 
استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی
Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi
"Unthirldom, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
(de facto)[1]
Anthem: 
سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Sorud-e Melli-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
("Naitional Anthem o the Islamic Republic o Iran")
Location o Iran
Caipital
and largest city
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683; 51.417
Offeecial leidsPersie
Recognised regional languages
Azerbaijani · Kurdish · Lurish · Semnani · Gilaki · Mazenderani · Tati · Turkmen · Arabic · Qashqai · Baloch · Talysh · Afshar · Georgie · Armenie · Neo-Aramaic[2]
Releegion Offeecial:
Islam (Shia)
Ither recognised releegions:
DemonymIranian, Persie
Govrenmentde jure:
Islamic Republic
de facto:
Theocratic-republican hybrid; unitar presidential republic subject tae a Supreme Leader[3]
• Supreme Leader
Ali Khamenei
• Preses
Hassan Rouhani
• Speaker o the Pairlament
Ali Larijani
• Chief Juistice
Sadeq Larijani
LegislaturIslamic Consultative Assembly
Unification
c. 678 BC
550 BC
247 BC
224 AD[4]
• Safavid Empire
1501[5]
1 Apryle 1979
• Current constitution
24 October 1979
• Constitution amended
28 Julie 1989
Aurie
• Total
1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) (17t)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2016 estimate
82,800,000[6] (18t)
• Density
48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) (162nt)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$1.551 trillion[7] (18t)
• Per capita
$19,050[7]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Tot
$438.3 billion[7] (27t)
• Per capita
$5,383[7]
Gini (2013)37.4[8]
medium
HDI (2014)Increase 0.766[9]
heich · 69t
CurrencyRial (ریال) (IRR)
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Date formatyyyy/mm/dd (SH)
Drivin sidericht
Cawin code+98
ISO 3166 codeIR
Internet TLD

Iran, kent offeecially as the Islamic Republic o Iran, is a kintra in Wastren Asie.[10][11] Wi ower 81 million indwallers,[12] Iran is the warld's 18t maist populous kintra.[13] Comprisin a laund aurie o 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the seicont lairgest kintra in the Middle East an the 17t lairgest in the warld. Iran is mairchit tae the northwast bi Armenie an the Republic o Azerbaijan,[lower-alpha 1] tae the north bi the Caspian Sea, tae the northeast bi Turkmenistan, tae the east bi Afghanistan an Pakistan, tae the sooth bi the Persie Gulf an the Gulf o Oman, an tae the wast bi Turkey an Iraq. The kintra's central location in Eurasie an Wastren Asia, an its proximity tae the Strait o Hormuz, gie it geostrategic importance.[14] Tehran is the kintra's caipital an lairgest ceety, as weel as its leadin economic an cultural centre.

Iran is hame tae ane o the warld's auldest ceevilisations,[15][16] beginnin wi the formation o the Elamite kinricks in the fowert millennium BCE. It wis first unifee'd bi the Iranian Medes in the seivent century BCE,[17] reachin its greatest territorial size in the saxt century BCE, whan Cyrus the Great foondit the Achaemenid Empire, that stretched frae Eastern Europe tae the Indus Valley, acomin ane o the lairgest empires in history.[18] The Iranian realm fell tae Alexander the Great in the fowert century BCE an wis dividit intae several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminatit in the establishment o the Parthian Empire, that wis succeedit in the third century CE bi the Sasanian Empire, a leadin warld pouer for the next fower centuries.[19][20]

Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seivent century CE. The Islamisation o Iran led tae the decline o Zoroastrianism, that wis bi then the kintra's dominant releegion, an Iran's major contreibutions tae airt an science spreid within the Muslim rule in the Islamic Gowden Age. Efter twa centuries, a period o various native Muslim dynasties begoud, that were later conquered bi the Seljuq Turks an the Ilkhanate Mongols. The rise o the Safavids in the 15t century led tae the reestablishment o a unifee'd Iranian state an naitional identity,[21] wi the kintra's conversion tae Shia Islam merkin a turnin point in Iranian an Muslim history.[5][22] Unner Nader Shah, Iran wis ane o the maist pouerfu states in the 18t century,[23] tho bi the 19t century, a series o conflicts wi the Russian Empire led tae signeeficant territorial losses.[24][25] The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20t century led tae the establishment of a constitutional monarchy an the kintra's first legislatur. A 1953 coup instigatit bi the Unitit Kinrick an the Unitit States resultit in greater autocracy an growin Wastren poleetical influence.[26] Subsequent widespreid dissatisfaction an unrest against the monarchy led tae the 1979 Revolution an the establishment o an Islamic republic,[27] a poleetical seestem that includes elements o a pairlamentar democracy vettit an supervised bi a theocracy govrened bi an autocratic "Supreme Leader".[28] In the 1980s, the kintra wis engaged in a war wi Iraq, that lastit for awmaist nine years an resultit in a heich nummer o casualties an economic losses for baith sides.

The sovereign state o Iran is a foondin member o the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, an OPEC. It is a major regional an middle pouer,[29][30] an its lairge reserves o fossil fuels – that include the warld's lairgest naitural gas supply an the fowert lairgest pruiven ile reserves[31][32] – exert conseederable influence in internaitional energy security an the warld economy.

The kintra's rich cultural legacy is reflectit in pairt bi its 22 UNESCO Warld Heritage steids, the third lairgest nummer in Asie an 11t lairgest in the warld.[33] Iran is a multicultural kintra comprisin numerous ethnic an lingueestic groups, the lairgest bein Persies (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), an Lurs (6%).[34]

Notes

  1. Includin the de facto independent, but unrecognised Republic o Artsakh.
Other Languages
Аҧсшәа: Џьамтәыла
Acèh: Iran
адыгабзэ: Иран
Afrikaans: Iran
Akan: Iran
Alemannisch: Iran
አማርኛ: ፋርስ
aragonés: Irán
Ænglisc: Persealand
العربية: إيران
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܪܐܢ
مصرى: ايران
অসমীয়া: ইৰান
asturianu: Irán
azərbaycanca: İran
تۆرکجه: ایران
башҡортса: Иран
Boarisch: Iran
žemaitėška: Irans
Bikol Central: Iran
беларуская: Іран
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іран
български: Иран
भोजपुरी: ईरान
বাংলা: ইরান
བོད་ཡིག: ཡི་ལང་།
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইরান
brezhoneg: Iran
bosanski: Iran
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Iran
буряад: Иран
català: Iran
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Irán
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iran
нохчийн: Иран
Cebuano: Iran
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᎴᏂ
کوردی: ئێران
corsu: Iranu
qırımtatarca: İran
čeština: Írán
kaszëbsczi: Iran
Чӑвашла: Иран
Cymraeg: Iran
dansk: Iran
Deutsch: Iran
Zazaki: İran
dolnoserbski: Iran
डोटेली: इरान
ދިވެހިބަސް: އީރާން
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨི་རཱན་
Ελληνικά: Ιράν
English: Iran
Esperanto: Irano
español: Irán
eesti: Iraan
euskara: Iran
estremeñu: Irán
فارسی: ایران
suomi: Iran
Võro: Iraan
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Iran
føroyskt: Iran
français: Iran
arpetan: Éran
Nordfriisk: Iraan
Frysk: Iran
Gaeilge: An Iaráin
Gagauz: İran
贛語: 伊朗
Gàidhlig: Ioràn
galego: Irán
گیلکی: ايران
Avañe'ẽ: Iran
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ईराण
ગુજરાતી: ઈરાન
Gaelg: Yn Eeraan
Hausa: Iran
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Iran
Hawaiʻi: ‘Ilana
עברית: איראן
हिन्दी: ईरान
Fiji Hindi: Iran
hrvatski: Iran
hornjoserbsce: Iran
Kreyòl ayisyen: Iran
magyar: Irán
հայերեն: Իրան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Իրան
interlingua: Iran
Bahasa Indonesia: Iran
Interlingue: Iran
Ilokano: Iran
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиран
Ido: Iran
íslenska: Íran
italiano: Iran
日本語: イラン
Patois: Iran
la .lojban.: iran
Jawa: Iran
ქართული: ირანი
Qaraqalpaqsha: İran
Taqbaylit: Iṛan
Адыгэбзэ: Къажэрей
Kabɩyɛ: Iranɩ
Kongo: Iran
Gĩkũyũ: Iran
қазақша: Иран
kalaallisut: Iran
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីរ៉ង់
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇರಾನ್
한국어: 이란
къарачай-малкъар: Иран
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ایٖران
kurdî: Îran
коми: Иран
kernowek: Iran
Кыргызча: Иран
Latina: Irania
Ladino: Iran
Lëtzebuergesch: Iran
лакку: Иран
лезги: Иран
Lingua Franca Nova: Iran
Limburgs: Iran
Ligure: Iran
lumbaart: Iran
lingála: Iran
لۊری شومالی: ایران
lietuvių: Iranas
latviešu: Irāna
मैथिली: इरान
мокшень: Иран
Malagasy: Iràna
олык марий: Иран
Māori: Īrāna
Baso Minangkabau: Iran
македонски: Иран
മലയാളം: ഇറാൻ
монгол: Иран
मराठी: इराण
Bahasa Melayu: Iran
Malti: Iran
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီရန်နိုင်ငံ
эрзянь: Иран Мастор
مازِرونی: ایران
Dorerin Naoero: Iran
Nāhuatl: Iran
Napulitano: Iran
Plattdüütsch: Iran
Nedersaksies: Iran
नेपाली: इरान
नेपाल भाषा: इरान
Nederlands: Iran
norsk nynorsk: Iran
norsk: Iran
Novial: Iran
Sesotho sa Leboa: Iran
occitan: Iran
Livvinkarjala: Iran
Oromoo: Iraan
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇରାନ
Ирон: Иран
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਈਰਾਨ
Pangasinan: Iran
Kapampangan: Iran
Papiamentu: Iran
Picard: Iran
Deitsch: Iraen
पालि: ईरान
Norfuk / Pitkern: Eraan
polski: Iran
Piemontèis: Iran
پنجابی: ایران
پښتو: ايران
português: Irão
Runa Simi: Iran
rumantsch: Iran
Kirundi: Irani
română: Iran
armãneashti: Iran
tarandíne: Iran
русский: Иран
русиньскый: Іран
Kinyarwanda: Irani
संस्कृतम्: ईरान
саха тыла: Ираан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱨᱟᱱ
sardu: Iran
sicilianu: Iran
سنڌي: ايران
davvisámegiella: Iran
Sängö: Iran
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Iran
සිංහල: ඉරානය
Simple English: Iran
slovenčina: Irán
slovenščina: Iran
Gagana Samoa: Iran
chiShona: Iran
Soomaaliga: Iiraan
shqip: Irani
српски / srpski: Иран
SiSwati: I-Irani
Seeltersk: Iroan
Basa Sunda: Iran
svenska: Iran
Kiswahili: Uajemi
ślůnski: Iran
தமிழ்: ஈரான்
ತುಳು: ಇರಾನ್
తెలుగు: ఇరాన్
tetun: Iraun
тоҷикӣ: Эрон
ትግርኛ: ኢራን
Türkmençe: Eýran
Tagalog: Iran
Tok Pisin: Iran
Türkçe: İran
Xitsonga: Iran
татарча/tatarça: Иран
chiTumbuka: Iran
Twi: Iran
тыва дыл: Ирaн
удмурт: Иран
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىران
українська: Іран
اردو: ایران
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Eron
vèneto: Iran
vepsän kel’: Iran
Tiếng Việt: Iran
West-Vlams: Iran
Volapük: Lirän
walon: Iran
Winaray: Iran
Wolof: Iraan
吴语: 伊朗
მარგალური: ირანი
ייִדיש: איראן
Yorùbá: Ìránì
Vahcuengh: Iran
Zeêuws: Iran
中文: 伊朗
文言: 伊朗
Bân-lâm-gú: Iran
粵語: 伊朗
isiZulu: I-Irani