Cheenese leid

Cheenese
汉语/漢語 or 中文
Hànyǔ or Zhōngwén
Hanyu trad simp.svg
Hànyǔ (Cheenese) written in Hanzi
Native taeFowkrepublic o Cheenae
(PRC, commonly kent as Cheenae),
Republic o Cheenae
(ROC, commonly kent as Taiwan),
Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau,
Malaysie, Brunei, the Unitit States,
Canadae, the Philippines,
Australie, Thailand, Vietnam,
Indonesie, Mauritius, Peru,
an ither places wi Cheenese communities
Native speakers
1.2 billion (2004)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
  • Sinitic
    • Cheenese
Staundart forms
Dialects
  • Mandarin
  • Jin
  • Huizhou
  • Wu (includin Shanghainese)
  • Hunanese
  • Jiangxinese
  • Hakka
  • Yue (includin Cantonese-Taishanese)
  • Pinghua
  • Shaojiang
  • Northren Min
  • Eastren Min (includin Fuchow)
  • Central Min
  • Pu Xian
  • Soothren Min (includin Amoy, Taiwanese)
  • Teochew (includin Swatow, Chaozhou,
    Jieyang, pairts o Shanwei/Meizhou)
Cheenese characters, zhuyin fuhao,
pinyin, Xiao'erjing
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in

 Unitit Naitions
 Fowkrepublic o Cheenae

 Republic o Cheenae (Taiwan)
 Singapore
(ane o the fower offeecial leids)
Burma Wa State, Burma (alangside the Wa leid)
 Brunei
 Hong Kong (alangside Inglish)

 Macau (alangside Portuguese)
Recognised minority
leid in
 Unitit States (minority an auxiliary)
 Malaysie (minority an auxiliary)
 Philippines (minority an auxiliary)
Regulatit biIn the PRC: Naitional Commission on
Leid an Script Wirk[2]
In the ROC: Naitional Leids Committee
In Singapore: Promote Mandarin Cooncil
/Speak Mandarin Campaign[3]
Leid codes
ISO 639-1zh
ISO 639-2chi (B)
zho (T)
ISO 639-3zho – inclusive code
Individual codes:
cdo – Min Dong
cjy – Jinyu
cmn – Mandarin
cpx – Pu Xian
czh – Huizhou
czo – Min Zhong
gan – Gan
hak – Hakka
hsn – Xiang
mnp – Min Bei
nan – Min Nan
wuu – Wu
yue – Yue
och – Auld Cheenese
ltc – Late Middle Cheenese
lzh – Classical Cheenese
Linguasphere79-AAA
New-Map-Sinophone World.PNG
Cairt o the Sinophone warld.

Information:

  Kintras identified Cheenese as a primary, admeenistrative, or native leid
  Kintras wi mair than 5,000,000 Cheenese speakers
  Kintras wi mair than 1,000,000 Cheenese speakers
  Kintras wi mair than 500,000 Cheenese speakers
  Kintras wi mair than 100,000 Cheenese speakers
  Major Cheenese speakin settlements

Chinese or the Sinitic leid(s) (汉语/漢語 Hànyǔ; 华语/華語 Huáyǔ; 中文 Zhōngwén) is a leid faimly consistin o leids that is maistly mutually unintelligible tae varyin degrees.[4] Oreeginally the indigenous leids spoken bi the Han Cheenese in Cheenae, it forms ane o the branches o Sino-Tibetan family o leids. Aboot ae-fift o the warld’s population, or ower ae billion fowk, speaks some variety o Cheenese as their native leid. Internal diveesions o Cheenese are uisually perceived bi their native speakers as dialects o a single Cheenese leid, raither than separate leids, although this identification is considered inappropriate bi some linguists an Sinologists.[5]

Spoken Cheenese is distinguisht bi its heich level o internal diversity, although aw spoken varieties o Cheenese are tonal an analytic. There atween seiven an thirteen main regional groups o Cheenese (dependin on classification scheme), o whilk the maist spoken, bi far, is Mandarin (aboot 850 million), follaed bi Wu (90 million), Cantonese (Yue) (70 million) an Min (50 million). Maist o thir groups is mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang an the Soothwest Mandarin dialects, mey share common terms an some degree o intelligibility.

Staundart Mandarin (Putonghua / Guoyu / Huayu) is a staundardised form o spoken Cheenese, based on the Beijing dialect, whilk is pairt o a lairger group o North-Eastren an Sooth-Wastren dialects, aften takken as a separate leid. The Mandarin Cheenese leid is referred tae as 官话/官話 Guānhuà or 北方话/北方話 Běifānghuà in Cheenese. Staundart Mandarin is the offeecial leid o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (PRC) an the Republic o Cheenae (ROC, an' a' kent as Taiwan), as weel as ane o fower offeecial leids o Singapore. Cheenese—de facto, Staundart Mandarin—is ane o the sax offeecial leids o the Unitit Naitions. O the ither varieties, Stanudart Cantonese is common an influential in Guangdong Province an Cantonese-speakin owerseas communities, an remains ane o the offeecial leids o Hong Kong (thegither wi Inglis) an o Macau (thegither wi Portuguese). Min Nan, pairt o the Min leid group, is widely spoken in soothren Fujian, in neighbourin Taiwan (whaur it is kent as Taiwanese or Hoklo) an in Sootheast Asie (kent as Hokkien in Singapore an Malaysie).

  • references

References

  1. Cheenese Academy o Social Sciences (2012), p. 3.
  2. china-language.gov.cn (in Cheenese)
  3. "Speak Mandarin Campaign". Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
  4. * David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) , p. 312. “The mutual unintelligibility of the varieties is the main ground for referring to them as separate languages.”
    • Charles N. Li, Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar (1989), p 2. “The Chinese language family is genetically classified as an independent branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.”
    • Jerry Norman. Chinese (1988), p.1. “The modern Chinese dialects are really more like a family of language.
    • John DeFrancis. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (1984), p.56. "To call Chinese a single language composed of dialects with varying degrees of difference is to mislead by minimizing disparities that according to Chao are as great as those between English and Dutch. To call Chinese a family of languages is to suggest extralinguistic differences that in fact do not exist and to overlook the unique linguistic situation that exists in China."
  5. "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic Terms" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 
Other Languages
Acèh: Bahsa Cina
Afrikaans: Chinees
አማርኛ: ቻይንኛ
aragonés: Idioma chinés
العربية: لغة صينية
مصرى: لغه صينى
asturianu: Idioma chinu
azərbaycanca: Çin dili
تۆرکجه: چین دیلی
башҡортса: Ҡытай теле
Boarisch: Kinäsisch
žemaitėška: Kėnu kalba
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Intsik
беларуская: Кітайская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітайская мова
български: Китайски език
भोजपुरी: चीनी भाषा
বাংলা: চীনা ভাষা
བོད་ཡིག: རྒྱ་སྐད།
brezhoneg: Yezhoù sinaek
bosanski: Kineski jezik
буряад: Хитад хэлэн
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Háng-ngṳ̄
нохчийн: Цийн мотт
Cebuano: Inintsik
Tsetsêhestâhese: Chinese
qırımtatarca: Çin tili
čeština: Čínština
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдиньскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
Чӑвашла: Китай чĕлхи
Cymraeg: Tsieineeg
dolnoserbski: Chinšćina
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނީ
Esperanto: Ĉina lingvaro
español: Idioma chino
eesti: Hiina keel
euskara: Txinera
estremeñu: Luenga china
Võro: Hiina kiil
føroyskt: Kinesiskt mál
Frysk: Sineesk
Gaeilge: An tSínis
贛語: 漢語
Gàidhlig: Sìonais
Avañe'ẽ: Chinañe'ẽ
ગુજરાતી: ચાઇનીઝ ભાષા
Hausa: Sinanci
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hon-ngî
हिन्दी: चीनी भाषा
Fiji Hindi: Chinese bhasa
hrvatski: Kineski jezik
hornjoserbsce: Chinšćina
magyar: Kínai nyelv
հայերեն: Չինարեն
Արեւմտահայերէն: Չինարէն
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Tionghoa
íslenska: Kínverska
italiano: Lingua cinese
日本語: 中国語
la .lojban.: jugbau
Jawa: Basa Cina
ქართული: ჩინური ენა
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay tili
Адыгэбзэ: Хъутеибзэ
Kongo: Kisinwá
қазақша: Қытай тілі
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាចិន
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚೀನಿ ಭಾಷೆ
한국어: 중국어
kernowek: Chinek
Кыргызча: Кытай тили
лезги: Китай чIал
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas xines
Limburgs: Chinees
lumbaart: Lengua cinesa
lingála: Lisinwa
لۊری شومالی: زڤون چینی
lietuvių: Kinų kalba
मैथिली: चीनी भाषा
Malagasy: Fiteny sinoa
Minangkabau: Bahaso Cino
македонски: Кинески јазик
മലയാളം: ചൈനീസ് ഭാഷ
монгол: Хятад хэл
मराठी: चिनी भाषा
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Cina
Mirandés: Lhéngua chinesa
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တရုတ်ဘာသာစကား
مازِرونی: چینی زوونون
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerit Tsiene
Nāhuatl: Chinatlahtolli
Plattdüütsch: Chineesche Spraak
नेपाल भाषा: चिनिया भाषा
Nederlands: Chinese talen
norsk nynorsk: Kinesisk
norsk: Kinesisk
Novial: Chinum
Sesotho sa Leboa: Setšhaena
occitan: Chinés
Livvinkarjala: Kitain kieli
Oromoo: Chaayiniffa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚੀਨੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
Picard: Chinoés
پنجابی: چینی
português: Língua chinesa
Runa Simi: Chun simi
română: Limba chineză
русиньскый: Кітайскый язык
Kinyarwanda: Gishinwa
संस्कृतम्: चीनी भाषा
саха тыла: Кытай тыла
sicilianu: Lingua cinisa
davvisámegiella: Kiinnágiella
Sängö: Shinuäa
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kineski jezik
Simple English: Chinese language
slovenčina: Čínština
slovenščina: Kitajščina
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asaina
српски / srpski: Кинески језик
Sesotho: Se-china
svenska: Kinesiska
Kiswahili: Kichina
ślůnski: Chińskŏ gŏdka
தமிழ்: சீன மொழி
తెలుగు: చైనీస్ భాష
тоҷикӣ: Забони чинӣ
ትግርኛ: ቻይንኛ
Türkmençe: Hytaý dili
Tagalog: Wikang Tsino
Türkçe: Çince
татарча/tatarça: Кытай теле
Twi: Chinese
reo tahiti: Reo Tinitō
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: خەنزۇ تىلى
українська: Китайська мова
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy tili
vepsän kel’: Kitajan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinänapük
吴语: 漢語
хальмг: Китдин келн
მარგალური: ჩინური ნინა
ייִדיש: כינעזיש
Vahcuengh: Vahgun
中文: 汉语
文言: 漢語
Bân-lâm-gú: Hàn-gí
粵語: 唐文
isiZulu: IsiShayina