ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ:IPA

Below is a basic key to the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. For the smaller set of symbols that is sufficient for English, see Wikipedia:IPA for English. Several rare IPA symbols are not included; these are found in the main IPA article. For the Manual of Style guideline for pronunciation, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation).

For each IPA symbol, an English example is given where possible; here "RP" stands for Received Pronunciation. The foreign languages that are used to illustrate additional sounds are primarily the ones most likely to be familiar to English speakers, French, German, and Spanish. For symbols not covered by those, recourse is taken to the populous languages Mandarin Chinese, Hindustani, Arabic, and Russian. For sounds still not covered, other smaller but well-known languages are used, such as Swahili, Turkish, and Zulu.

The left-hand column displays the symbols like this:  (i) listen . Click on the speaker icon to hear the sound; click on the symbol itself for a dedicated article with a more complete description and examples from multiple languages. All the sounds are spoken more than once, and the consonant sounds are spoken once followed by a vowel and once between vowels.

ବିଷୟସୂଚୀ:A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  other   Diacritic marks   Brackets   Rendering issues 

Main symbols

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

   Symbol    Examples Description
A
 (i) listen  Mandarin 他 tā, German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
Spanish casa, French patte
 (i) listen  German , French gare Long [a].
 (i) listen  RP cut, German (With English, [ɐ] is normally written "[ʌ]".)
 (i) listen  Finnish , Dutch bad
 (i) listen  RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
French , sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
 (i) listen  RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
 (i) listen  Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When "[ʌ]" is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
 (i) listen  RP cat
B
 (i) listen  English babble
 (i) listen  Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen  Like the brrr sound made when cold.
 (i) listen  Spanish la Bamba Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
C
 (i) listen  Turkish kebap " kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen  German Ich More y-like than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
 (i) listen  Mandarin Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
 (i) listen  see under O
D
 (i) listen  English dad
 (i) listen  Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen  American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen  English the, bathe
 (i) listen  1 English adze, Italian zero
 (i) listen  1 English judge
 (i) listen  1 Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen  1 Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
 (i) listen  Spanish fe; French clé
 (i) listen  German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
 (i) listen  English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
American English runner
 (i) listen  English bet
French , vin, main; Polish mięso Nasalized [ɛ].
 (i) listen  RP bird (long)
American English bird
F
 (i) listen  English fun
 (i) listen  see under J
 (i) listen  see under J
G
 (i) listen  English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
 (i) listen  Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen  Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Gaddafi.
 (i) listen  see under Z English beige.
H
 (i) listen  American English house
 (i) listen  English ahead, when said quickly.
The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
 (i) listen  Arabic محمد Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
 (i) listen  see under U
[ ɮ ] see under L
I
 (i) listen  French ville, Spanish
 (i) listen  English sea Long [i].
 (i) listen  English sit
 (i) listen  Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
 (i) listen  English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
 (i) listen  Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
 (i) listen  Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen  Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
 (i) listen  English kick, skip
L
 (i) listen  English leaf
 (i) listen  English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
 (i) listen  Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
Rather like [l] and [ʃ] or [l] and [θ] said together. Found in Welsh names like Lloyd and Llywelyn and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
 (i) listen  Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen  A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
 (i) listen  Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
 (i) listen  English mime
 (i) listen  English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ ɯ ] see under W
 (i) listen  see under W
N
 (i) listen  English nun
 (i) listen  English sing
 (i) listen  Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon.
 (i) listen  Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen  Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
 (i) listen  Spanish no, French eau
 (i) listen  German Boden, French Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
 (i) listen  German , French
 (i) listen  RP law, French Long [ɔ].
French Lyon, son; Polish wąż Nasalized [ɔ].
 (i) listen  French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
 (i) listen  German , French , neutre Long [ø].
 (i) listen  Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
 (i) listen  French bœuf, seul, German Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
 (i) listen  French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
 (i) listen  see under other
 (i) listen  see under other
P
 (i) listen  English pip
Q
 (i) listen  Arabic ur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
 (i) listen  Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Generally used for English [ɹ] when there's no need to be precise.)
 (i) listen  Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
 (i) listen  A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
 (i) listen  Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
 (i) listen  RP borrow
 (i) listen  American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
 (i) listen  French is, German Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
 (i) listen  English sass
 (i) listen  English shoe
 (i) listen  Mandarin 少林 ( àolín), Russian Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
 (i) listen  English tot, stop
 (i) listen  Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen  2 English cats, Russian царь tsar
 (i) listen  2 English church
 (i) listen  2 Mandarin 北京  (i) listen Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen  2 Mandarin zh, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back .
U
 (i) listen  French vous "you"
 (i) listen  French , German , close to RP food Long [u].
 (i) listen  English foot, German Bundesrepublik
 (i) listen  Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen  French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
 (i) listen  see under W
V
 (i) listen  English verve
 (i) listen  Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
 (i) listen  Arabic / Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [g] and [h].
 (i) listen  Mandarin nán Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ ʌ ] see under A
W
 (i) listen  English wow
English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick.
 (i) listen  what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
 (i) listen  Turkish kayık "caïque" Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
 (i) listen  Spanish agua
X
 (i) listen  Scottish English loch, German , Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
 (i) listen  northern Standard Dutch , Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
 (i) listen  French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen  German , French sûr Long [y].
 (i) listen  German Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
 (i) listen  Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
 (i) listen  see under U
 (i) listen  see under V
[ ɣ ] see under V
Z
 (i) listen  English zoos
 (i) listen  English vision, French journal
 (i) listen  formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
 (i) listen  Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back .
[ ɮ ] see under L
other
 (i) listen  English thigh, bath
 (i) listen  Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] uji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeː'nuiː] arenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
 (i) listen  English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [ʌˈʔæpl̩].
   listen  Arabic عربي (carabī) "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
 (i) listen  English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǀ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]. The Zimbabwean MP ube has this click in his name, as did etshwayo.
 (i) listen  English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǁ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]. Found in the name of the hosa.
 (i) listen  Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǃ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ].
  • ^1 ^2 These symbols are officially written with a tie linking them (e.g. t͡ʃ), and are also sometimes written as single characters (e.g. ʧ) though the latter convention is no longer official. They are written without ligatures here to ensure correct display in all browsers.
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