Republic of Zimbabwe

Motto: "Unity, Freedom, Work"[1]
Location of Zimbabwe (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue)
Location of Zimbabwe (dark blue)

in the African Union (light blue)

and largest city
17°50′S 31°3′E / 17°50′S 31°3′E / -17.833; 31.050
Official languages16 languages:[3]
Ethnic groups
Zimbo[4] (colloquial)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Emmerson Mnangagwa
Constantino Chiwenga
Kembo Mohadi
House of Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Declared
11 November 1965
• Republic
2 March 1970
1 June 1979
• Republic of Zimbabwe
18 April 1980
15 May 2013
• Total
390,757 km2 (150,872 sq mi) (60th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
14,438,802[5][6] (73rd)
• 2012 census
• Density
26/km2 (67.3/sq mi) (170th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$41.031 billion
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$22.290 billion
• Per capita
Gini (1995)50.1[9]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.535[10]
low · 156th
CurrencyRTGS Dollar
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT[11])
Driving sideleft
Calling code+263
ISO 3166 codeZW
Internet TLD.zw
  1. following a decision by the Zimbabwean government in June 2019, the RTGS dollar is the sole legal currency.

Zimbabwe (i/), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, erstwhile Rhodesia,[12] is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. The second largest is Bulawayo. A country of roughly 14 million[5][6] people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages,[3] with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most common.

Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, and from which it withdrew in December 2003. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity.[13][14][15]

Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations.[16] Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries.[17] Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator".[18] The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way.

On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.[19][20] On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place.[21] On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.[22] On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections,[23] which was won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa.[24] Nelson Chamisa who was leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe.[25] The court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory, making him the newly elected president after Mugabe.[26][27]


The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones" (dzimba = plural of imba, "house"; mabwe = plural of bwe, "stone").[28][29][30] The Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or graves.[31]

Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1898), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema,[32] whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961.[33] The term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations.[32]

According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed.[34] A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo.[33]

It was initially unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland"[33] — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement.[32] In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and that was that".[32] The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe from 1975), and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (led by Joshua Nkomo from its founding in the early 1960s).[citation needed]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Zimbabwe
Alemannisch: Simbabwe
አማርኛ: ዚምባብዌ
Ænglisc: Simbabwe
العربية: زيمبابوي
aragonés: Zimbabwe
arpetan: Zimbaboue
asturianu: Zimbabue
azərbaycanca: Zimbabve
تۆرکجه: زیمبابوه
Bali: Zimbabwe
bamanankan: Zimbabwe
Banjar: Zimbabwe
Bân-lâm-gú: Zimbabwe
башҡортса: Зимбабве
беларуская: Зімбабвэ
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Зымбабвэ
भोजपुरी: जिम्बाब्वे
Bikol Central: Simbabwe
български: Зимбабве
Boarisch: Simbabwe
བོད་ཡིག: ཛིམ་བབ་ཝི།
bosanski: Zimbabve
brezhoneg: Zimbabwe
буряад: Зимбабве
català: Zimbàbue
Чӑвашла: Зимбабве
Cebuano: Zimbabwe
čeština: Zimbabwe
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Zimbabwe
Chi-Chewa: Zimbabwe
chiShona: Zimbabwe
Cymraeg: Simbabwe
dansk: Zimbabwe
davvisámegiella: Zimbabwe
Deitsch: Zimbabwe
Deutsch: Simbabwe
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޒިމްބާބުވޭ
dolnoserbski: Simbabwe
डोटेली: जिम्बावे
eesti: Zimbabwe
Ελληνικά: Ζιμπάμπουε
español: Zimbabue
Esperanto: Zimbabvo
estremeñu: Zimbagüi
euskara: Zimbabwe
eʋegbe: Zimbabwe
فارسی: زیمبابوه
Fiji Hindi: Zimbabwe
føroyskt: Simbabvi
français: Zimbabwe
Frysk: Simbabwe
Gaeilge: An tSiombáib
Gagauz: Zimbabve
Gàidhlig: Siombabue
galego: Cimbabue
Gĩkũyũ: Zimbabwe
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Zimbabwe
한국어: 짐바브웨
Hausa: Zimbabwe
հայերեն: Զիմբաբվե
Արեւմտահայերէն: Զիմպապուէ
hornjoserbsce: Simbabwe
hrvatski: Zimbabve
Igbo: Zimbabwe
Ilokano: Zimbabwe
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জিম্বাবুয়ে
Bahasa Indonesia: Zimbabwe
interlingua: Zimbabwe
Interlingue: Zimbabwe
isiZulu: IZimbabwe
íslenska: Simbabve
italiano: Zimbabwe
עברית: זימבבואה
Jawa: Zimbabwé
Kabɩyɛ: Simbaabuwee
Kapampangan: Zimbabwe
ქართული: ზიმბაბვე
қазақша: Зимбабве
kernowek: Zimbabwe
Kinyarwanda: Zimbabwe
Kiswahili: Zimbabwe
Kongo: Zimbabwe
Kreyòl ayisyen: Zimbabwe
kurdî: Zîmbabwe
Кыргызча: Зимбабве
кырык мары: Зимбабве
لۊری شومالی: زیمباڤٱ
latgaļu: Zimbabve
Latina: Zimbabua
latviešu: Zimbabve
Lëtzebuergesch: Simbabwe
лезги: Зимбабве
lietuvių: Zimbabvė
Ligure: Zimbabwe
Limburgs: Zimbabwe
lingála: Zimbabwe
Lingua Franca Nova: Zimbabue
Livvinkarjala: Zimbabve
la .lojban.: zimbabues
Luganda: Zimbabwe
lumbaart: Zimbabwe
magyar: Zimbabwe
македонски: Зимбабве
Malagasy: Zimbaboe
മലയാളം: സിംബാബ്‌വെ
Malti: Żimbabwe
მარგალური: ზიმბაბვე
مازِرونی: زیمبابوه
Bahasa Melayu: Zimbabwe
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Zimbabwe
монгол: Зимбабве
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဇင်ဘာဘွေနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Zimbahue
Nederlands: Zimbabwe
नेपाली: जिम्बाब्वे
नेपाल भाषा: जिम्बाब्वे
日本語: ジンバブエ
нохчийн: Зимбабве
Nordfriisk: Simbabwe
Norfuk / Pitkern: Zimbabwe
norsk: Zimbabwe
norsk nynorsk: Zimbabwe
Novial: Zimbabwe
occitan: Zimbabwe
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜିମ୍ବାୱେ
Oromoo: Zimbaabuwee
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Zimbabve
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜ਼ਿੰਬਾਬਵੇ
پنجابی: زمبابوے
Papiamentu: Zimbabwe
Patois: Zimbabue
Piemontèis: Zimbabwe
Plattdüütsch: Simbabwe
polski: Zimbabwe
português: Zimbabwe
Qaraqalpaqsha: Zimbabve
qırımtatarca: Zimbabve
Ripoarisch: Simbabwe
română: Zimbabwe
Runa Simi: Simbabwi
русиньскый: Зімбабве
русский: Зимбабве
саха тыла: Зимбабве
संस्कृतम्: जिम्बाबवे
Sängö: Zimbäbwe
sardu: Zimbabwe
Scots: Zimbabwe
Seeltersk: Simbabwe
Sesotho: Zimbabwe
Sesotho sa Leboa: Zimbabwe
Setswana: Sempakwe
shqip: Zimbabveja
sicilianu: Zimbabbui
Simple English: Zimbabwe
سنڌي: زمبابوي
SiSwati: IZimbabhwe
slovenčina: Zimbabwe
slovenščina: Zimbabve
ślůnski: Zimbabwe
Soomaaliga: Simbaabwi
کوردی: زیمبابوی
српски / srpski: Зимбабве
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Zimbabve
Sunda: Zimbabwé
suomi: Zimbabwe
svenska: Zimbabwe
Tagalog: Zimbabwe
Taqbaylit: Zimbabwe
татарча/tatarça: Зимбабве
తెలుగు: జింబాబ్వే
ትግርኛ: ዚምባብዌ
тоҷикӣ: Зимбабве
Tsetsêhestâhese: Zimbabwe
Tshivenda: Zimbagwe
Türkçe: Zimbabve
Türkmençe: Zimbabwe
удмурт: Зимбабве
українська: Зімбабве
اردو: زمبابوے
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: زىمبابۋې
Vahcuengh: Zimbabwe
vèneto: Zinbàbue
vepsän kel’: Zimbabve
Tiếng Việt: Zimbabwe
Volapük: Zimbabiyän
Võro: Zimbabwe
文言: 津巴布韋
Winaray: Zimbabwe
Wolof: Simbaawee
吴语: 津巴布韦
Xitsonga: Zimbabwe
ייִדיש: זימבאבווע
Yorùbá: Sìmbábúè
粵語: 津巴布韋
Zazaki: Zimbabwe
Zeêuws: Zimbabwe
žemaitėška: Zėmbabvė
中文: 辛巴威