York

York
City and Unitary authority
York city centre from above in February 2015
York city centre from above in February 2015
Flag of York
Flag
Coat of arms of York
Coat of arms
Motto: 'Let the Banner of York Fly High'
York unitary authority shown within North Yorkshire and England
York unitary authority shown within North Yorkshire and England
Coordinates: 53°57′30″N 1°4′49″W / 53°57′30″N 1°4′49″W / 53.95833; -1.08028
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Ceremonial county North Yorkshire
Admin HQ York City Centre
Founded as Eboracum c. 71  AD
Government
 • Type Unitary authority, City
 • Governing body City of York Council
 •  Leadership Leader and cabinet
 • Executive Conservative
 • Leader
 • Lord Mayor
David Carr
Barbara Boyce
 •  MPs Rachael Maskell (L)
Julian Sturdy (C)
Area
 • Total 105.00 sq mi (271.94 km2)
Population (mid-2016 est.)
 • Total 208,400 ( Ranked 83rd)
 • Density 1,780/sq mi (687/km2)
 • Ethnicity
(2009 Estimates) [1]
92.8% White
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time ( UTC+0)
 • Summer ( DST) British Summer Time ( UTC+1)
Postcode YO
Area code(s) 01904
ISO 3166-2 GB-YOR
ONS code 00FF (ONS)
E06000014 (GSS)
OS grid reference SE603517
NUTS 3 UKE21
Primary Airport Leeds Bradford Airport (Outside of York)
Website www.york.gov.uk

York ( k/ ( About this sound  listen)) is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The municipality is the traditional county town of the historic county of Yorkshire to which it gives its name. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it a popular tourist destination for millions.

The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. [2]

In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre. In recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.

From 1996, the term 'City of York' describes a local government district (a unitary authority area) which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries. In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, [3] while in 2010 the entire unitary authority had an estimated population of 202,400. [1]

History

Origin of the name

The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland. [4]

The toponymy of Eboracum is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population was never recorded. They are thought to have spoken a Celtic language related to modern Welsh. [5] [6] [7] It is thought that Eboracum is derived from the Brythonic word Eborakon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" (cf. Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf. Welsh -og) [8] meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf. efrog in Welsh, eabhrac in Irish Gaelic and eabhraig in Scottish Gaelic, by which names the city is known in those languages); or less probably, Eburos, 'property', which is a personal Celtic name mentioned in different documents as Eβουρος, Eburus and Eburius, and which, combined with the same suffix *-āko(n), could denote a property. [9] [8] In his Historia Regum Britanniae the 12th century chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus. [10]

The name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, and -wic a village probably by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz (boar); by the 7th century the Old English for 'boar' had become eofor. Alternatively, the word eofor already existed as an Old English word for wild swine, which is a cognate of the current Low Saxon word eaver and Dutch ever. [11] The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the ebor part as eofor, and -rac as ric (meaning rich), while -um was (and is) a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem, meaning home. To them, it sounded as a 'home rich in boar'. As is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded; eoforic. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík. [12]

The Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" (modern Norman "Évèroui") in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. [13] Jórvík, meanwhile, gradually reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century. [2] [14] Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name. [15] The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature. [16]

Early history

Roman wall and the west corner tower of Eboracum. The top half is medieval.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes. The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but, later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. [17]

The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss. The fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres (20 ha) and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns. [12] [18]

Roman Emperor Constantine the Great proclaimed Emperor at York in 306 AD.

The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a colonia or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, and his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. [18] [19] In 311 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province.

While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss and the population reduced. [20] York declined in the post-Roman era, and was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century. [21]

Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, and York became his chief city. [22] The first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede. [23] Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone but was killed in 633 and the task of completing the stone minster fell to his successor Oswald. [12] [24] In the following century Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York. He had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, and later as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. [25]

In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe. The last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England. [26]

Post conquest

Micklegate – York is famous for its medieval city walls.

In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England, the people of York rebelled. Initially the rebellion was successful but upon the arrival of William the Conqueror the rebellion was put down. William at once built a wooden fortress on a motte. In 1069, after another rebellion, William built another timbered castle across the River Ouse. These were destroyed in 1069 and rebuilt by William about the time of his ravaging Northumbria in what is called the " Harrying of the North" where he destroyed everything from York to Durham. The remains of the rebuilt castles, now in stone, are visible on either side of the River Ouse. See Peter Rex's The English Resistance, The Underground War Against the Normans, 2006. [27]

The first stone minster church was badly damaged by fire in the uprising, and the Normans built a minster on a new site. Around the year 1080 Archbishop Thomas started building the cathedral that in time became the current Minster. [24] In the 12th century York started to prosper. In 1190, York Castle was the site of an infamous massacre of its Jewish inhabitants, in which at least 150 Jews died (although some authorities put the figure as high as 500). [28] [29]

The Shambles, a medieval street in York

The city, through its location on the River Ouse and its proximity to the Great North Road became a major trading centre. King John granted the city's first charter in 1212, [30] confirming trading rights in England and Europe. [24] [31] During the later Middle Ages York merchants imported wine from France, cloth, wax, canvas, and oats from the Low Countries, timber and furs from the Baltic and exported grain to Gascony and grain and wool to the Low Countries. [32] York became a major cloth manufacturing and trading centre. Edward I further stimulated the city's economy by using the city as a base for his war in Scotland. The city was the location of significant unrest during the so-called Peasants' Revolt in 1381. The city acquired an increasing degree of autonomy from central government including the privileges granted by a charter of Richard II in 1396.

16th to 18th centuries

A panorama of 15th-century York by E Ridsdale Tate, York Castle is on the right hand side of the river, opposite the abandoned motte of Baile Hill

The city underwent a period of economic decline during Tudor times. Under Henry VIII, the Dissolution of the Monasteries saw the end of York's many monastic houses, including several orders of friars, the hospitals of St Nicholas and of St Leonard, the largest such institution in the north of England. This led to the Pilgrimage of Grace, an uprising of northern Catholics in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire opposed to religious reform. Henry VIII restored his authority by establishing the Council of the North in York in the dissolved St Mary's Abbey. The city became a trading and service centre during this period. [33] [34]

Guy Fawkes, who was born and educated in York, was a member of a group of Roman Catholic restorationists that planned the Gunpowder Plot. [35] Its aim was to displace Protestant rule by blowing up the Houses of Parliament while King James I, the entire Protestant, and even most of the Catholic aristocracy and nobility were inside.

In 1644, during the Civil War, the Parliamentarians besieged York, and many medieval houses outside the city walls were lost. The barbican at Walmgate Bar was undermined and explosives laid, but, the plot was discovered. On the arrival of Prince Rupert, with an army of 15,000 men, the siege was lifted. The Parliamentarians retreated some 6 miles (10 km) from York with Rupert in pursuit, before turning on his army and soundly defeating it at the Battle of Marston Moor. Of Rupert's 15,000 troops, no fewer than 4,000 were killed and 1,500 captured. The siege was renewed and the city could not hold out for much longer, surrendering to Sir Thomas Fairfax [33] on 15 July.

Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and the removal of the garrison from York in 1688, the city was dominated by the gentry and merchants, although the clergy were still important. Competition from Leeds and Hull, together with silting of the River Ouse, resulted in York losing its pre-eminent position as a trading centre but the city's role as the social and cultural centre for wealthy northerners was on the rise. York's many elegant townhouses, such as the Lord Mayor's Mansion House and Fairfax House date from this period, as do the Assembly Rooms, the Theatre Royal, and the racecourse. [34] [36]

During this general time period, the American city of New York and the colony that contained it were renamed after the Duke of York (later King James II). [37]

Modern history

The Minster as seen from the Station Road walls

mak all t'railways cum to York

The railway promoter George Hudson was responsible for bringing the railway to York in 1839. Although Hudson's career as a railway entrepreneur ended in disgrace and bankruptcy, his promotion of his own railway company, the York and North Midland Railway and of York over Leeds, helped establish York as a major railway centre by the late 19th century. [39]

The introduction of the railways established engineering in the city. [40] [41] At the turn of the 20th century, the railway accommodated the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway, which employed more than 5,500 people. The railway was instrumental in the expansion of Rowntree's Cocoa Works. It was founded in 1862 by Henry Isaac Rowntree, who was joined in 1869 by his brother the philanthropist Joseph. [42] Another chocolate manufacturer, Terry's of York was a major employer. [34] [43] By 1900 the railways and confectionery had become the city's two major industries. [41]

With the emergence of tourism, the historic core of York became one of the city's major assets, and in 1968 it was designated a conservation area. [44] The existing tourist attractions were supplemented by the establishment of the National Railway Museum in York in 1975 [45] and the Jorvik Viking Centre in 1984. The opening of the University of York in 1963 added to the prosperity of the city. [46]

In 2010, the former headquarters on the North Eastern Railway were refurbished in class and opened as York's first, and still only, 5-star hotel – currently known as The Grand Hotel & Spa. [47]

York was voted European Tourism City of the Year by European Cities Marketing in June 2007 beating 130 other European cities to gain first place, surpassing Gothenburg in Sweden (second) and Valencia in Spain (third). [48] York was also voted safest place to visit in the 2010 Condé Nast Traveller Readers’ Choice Awards. [49]

Early photography

York was a centre of early photography as described by Hugh Murray in his 1986 book: Photographs and Photographers of York: The Early Years, 1844–79. Photographers who had studios in York included William Hayes, William Pumphrey, and Augustus Mahalski who operated on Davygate and Low Petergate in the 19th century having come to England as a refugee after serving as a Polish lancer in the Austro-Hungarian war. [50] [51]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: York
Alemannisch: York
Ænglisc: Eoforwic
العربية: يورك
asturianu: York
azərbaycanca: York
Bân-lâm-gú: York
беларуская: Ёрк (горад)
български: Йорк
brezhoneg: York
català: York
čeština: York
Cymraeg: Efrog
dansk: York
Deutsch: York
eesti: York
Ελληνικά: Γιορκ
español: York
Esperanto: Jorko
euskara: York
فارسی: یورک
français: York
Gaeilge: Eabhrac
Gàidhlig: Eabhraig
galego: York
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: York
한국어: 요크
Հայերեն: Յորք
hrvatski: York
Bahasa Indonesia: York, Inggris
íslenska: York
italiano: York
עברית: יורק
ქართული: იორკი
қазақша: Йорк (Англия)
kernowek: Evrek
Kiswahili: York
Кыргызча: Йорк
Latina: Eboracum
latviešu: Jorka
Lëtzebuergesch: York
lietuvių: Jorkas
lumbaart: York
magyar: York
मराठी: यॉर्क
مازِرونی: یورک
Bahasa Melayu: York
norsk: York
norsk nynorsk: York
Nouormand: Évèroui
پنجابی: یارک
polski: York
português: Iorque
Qaraqalpaqsha: York
română: York
Runa Simi: York
русский: Йорк
Scots: York
sicilianu: York
Simple English: York
slovenčina: York (Anglicko)
slovenščina: York, Anglija
ślůnski: York
کوردی: یۆرک
српски / srpski: Јорк
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: York
suomi: York
svenska: York
Tagalog: York
தமிழ்: யார்க்
ไทย: ยอร์ก
Türkçe: York
українська: Йорк
اردو: یورک
vèneto: York
Tiếng Việt: York
Volapük: York
Võro: York
Winaray: York
ייִדיש: יארק
粵語: 約克
Zazaki: York
中文: 約克