Yitzhak Rabin

Yitzhak Rabin
Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Life of Lt. Gen. Yitzhak Rabin, 7th IDF Chief of Staff in photos (11).jpg
5th Prime Minister of Israel
In office
13 July 1992 – 4 November 1995
Preceded byYitzhak Shamir
Succeeded byShimon Peres
In office
3 June 1974 – 22 April 1977
PresidentEphraim Katzir
Preceded byGolda Meir
Succeeded byShimon Peres (acting)
10th Minister of Defense
In office
13 July 1992 – 4 November 1995
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byMoshe Arens
Succeeded byShimon Peres
In office
13 September 1984 – 15 March 1990
Prime Minister
Preceded byMoshe Arens
Succeeded byMoshe Arens
Personal details
Born(1922-03-01)1 March 1922
Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine
Died4 November 1995(1995-11-04) (aged 73)
Tel Aviv, Israel
Political partyAlignment, Labor Party
Spouse(s)Leah Rabin
ProfessionMilitary officer
Military service
Allegiance Israel
Israeli Defense Forces
Years of service1941–1967
RankIDF Ranks Ra'al.svg Rav Aluf
Battles/warsSyria–Lebanon Campaign
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Six-Day War

Yitzhak Rabin (n/;[1] Hebrew: יצחק רבין‬, IPA: [jitsˈχak ʁaˈbin] (About this soundlisten); 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995.

Rabin was born in Jerusalem to Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants and was raised in a Labor Zionist household. He learned agriculture in school and excelled as a student. He led a 27-year career as a soldier. As a teenager he joined the Palmach, the commando force of the Yishuv. He eventually rose through its ranks to become its chief of operations during Israel's War of Independence. He joined the newly formed Israel Defense Forces in late 1948 and continued to rise as a promising officer. He helped shape the training doctrine of the IDF in the early 1950s, and led the IDF's Operations Directorate from 1959 to 1963. He was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1964 and oversaw Israel's victory in the 1967 Six-Day War.

Rabin served as Israel's ambassador to the United States from 1968 to 1973, during a period of deepening U.S.–Israel ties. He was appointed Prime Minister of Israel in 1974, after the resignation of Golda Meir. In his first term, Rabin signed the Sinai Interim Agreement and ordered the Entebbe raid. He resigned in 1977 in the wake of a financial scandal. Rabin was Israel's minister of defense for much of the 1980s, including during the outbreak of the First Intifada.

In 1992, Rabin was re-elected as prime minister on a platform embracing the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. He signed several historic agreements with the Palestinian leadership as part of the Oslo Accords. In 1994, Rabin won the Nobel Peace Prize together with long-time political rival Shimon Peres and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Rabin also signed a peace treaty with Jordan in 1994. In November 1995, he was assassinated by an extremist named Yigal Amir, who opposed the terms of the Oslo Accords. Amir was arrested and convicted of Rabin's murder; he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Rabin was the first native-born prime minister of Israel, the only prime minister to be assassinated and the second to die in office after Levi Eshkol. Rabin has become a symbol of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.

Personal life

Family background

Rabin was born at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem on 1 March 1922, Mandatory Palestine, to Nehemiah (1886 – 1 December 1971) and Rosa (née Cohen; 1890 – 12 November 1937) Rabin, immigrants of the Third Aliyah, the third wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine from Europe. Nehemiah was born Nehemiah Rubitzov in the shtetl Sydorovychi near Ivankiv in the southern Pale of Settlement (present-day Ukraine).[2] His father Menachem died when he was a boy, and Nehemiah worked to support his family from an early age. At the age of 18, he emigrated to the United States, where he joined the Poale Zion party and changed his surname to Rabin. In 1917, Nehemiah Rabin went to Mandatory Palestine with a group of volunteers from the Jewish Legion.

Yitzhak's mother, Rosa Cohen, was born in 1890 in Mogilev in Belarus. Her father, a rabbi, opposed the Zionist movement and sent Rosa to a Christian high school for girls in Gomel, which gave her a broad general education. Early on, Rosa took an interest in political and social causes. In 1919, she traveled to Palestine on the steamship Ruslan. After working on a kibbutz on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, she moved to Jerusalem.[3]

Rabin's parents met in Jerusalem during the 1920 Nebi Musa riots.[4] They moved to Tel Aviv's Chlenov Street near Jaffa in 1923. Nehemiah became a worker for the Palestine Electric Corporation and Rosa was an accountant and local activist. She became a member of the Tel Aviv City Council.[5] The family moved again in 1931 to a two-room apartment on Hamagid Street in Tel Aviv.[6]

Early life and education

External video
Booknotes interview with Rabin's granddaughter Noa Ben Artzi-Pelossof on her book about Rabin, In the Name of Sorrow and Hope, May 26, 1996, C-SPAN

Rabin grew up in Tel Aviv, where the family relocated when he was one year old. He enrolled in the Tel Aviv Beit Hinuch Leyaldei Ovdim (בית חינוך לילדי עובדים, "School House for Workers' Children") in 1928 and completed his studies there in 1935. The school taught the children agriculture as well as Zionism.[7] Rabin mostly received good marks in school, but he was so shy that few people knew he was intelligent.[8]

In 1935, Rabin enrolled at an agricultural school on kibbutz Givat Hashlosha that his mother founded. It was here in 1936 at the age of 14 that Rabin joined the Haganah and received his first military training, learning how to use a pistol and stand guard. He joined a socialist-Zionist youth movement, HaNoar HaOved.[9]

In 1937, he enrolled at the two-year Kadoorie Agricultural High School. He excelled in a number of agriculture-related subjects but disliked studying English language—the language of the British "enemy."[10][11] He originally aspired to be an irrigation engineer, but his interest in military affairs intensified in 1938, when the ongoing Arab revolt worsened. A young Haganah sergeant named Yigal Allon, later a general in the IDF and prominent politician, trained Rabin and others at Kadoorie. Rabin finished at Kadoorie in August 1940.[12] For part of 1939, the British closed Kadoorie, and Rabin joined Allon as a military policeman at Kibbutz Ginosar until the school re-opened.[13] When he finished school, Rabin considered studying irrigation engineering on scholarship at the University of California, Berkeley, although he ultimately decided to stay and fight in Palestine.[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Yitzhak Rabin
Alemannisch: Jitzchak Rabin
العربية: إسحاق رابين
aragonés: Yitzhak Rabin
asturianu: Isaac Rabin
Aymar aru: Yitzhak Rabin
azərbaycanca: İshaq Rabin
تۆرکجه: اسحاق رابین
беларуская: Іцхак Рабін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іцхак Рабін
български: Ицхак Рабин
bosanski: Yitzhak Rabin
čeština: Jicchak Rabin
Cymraeg: Yitzhak Rabin
Ελληνικά: Γιτζάκ Ράμπιν
español: Isaac Rabin
Esperanto: Jicĥak Rabin
euskara: Isaak Rabin
français: Yitzhak Rabin
Gaeilge: Yitzak Rabin
հայերեն: Իցհակ Ռաբին
hrvatski: Jichak Rabin
Bahasa Indonesia: Yitzhak Rabin
íslenska: Yitzhak Rabin
italiano: Yitzhak Rabin
עברית: יצחק רבין
Basa Jawa: Yitzhak Rabin
ქართული: იცხაკ რაბინი
Latina: Isaac Rabin
latviešu: Ichaks Rabins
lietuvių: Ichakas Rabinas
Lingua Franca Nova: Yitzhak Rabin
македонски: Јицак Рабин
مازِرونی: اسحاق رابین
Bahasa Melayu: Yitzhak Rabin
Nederlands: Yitzhak Rabin
norsk nynorsk: Yitzhak Rabin
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yitzhak Rabin
پنجابی: اسحاق رابین
polski: Icchak Rabin
português: Yitzhak Rabin
română: Ițhak Rabin
Runa Simi: Yitzhak Rabin
русский: Рабин, Ицхак
Simple English: Yitzhak Rabin
slovenčina: Jicchak Rabin
slovenščina: Jicak Rabin
српски / srpski: Јицак Рабин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Yitzhak Rabin
svenska: Yitzhak Rabin
Tagalog: Yitzhak Rabin
Türkçe: İzak Rabin
Türkmençe: Isaak Rabin
українська: Іцхак Рабин
Tiếng Việt: Yitzhak Rabin
Winaray: Yitzhak Rabin
ייִדיש: יצחק ראבין
Yorùbá: Yitzhak Rabin
粵語: 拉賓