Yellow vests movement

Yellow vests movement
Gilets jaunes protests
Part of Protests against Emmanuel Macron
ManifGiletsJaunesVesoul 17nov2018 (cropped).jpg
A gilets jaunes demonstration in Vesoul, eastern France
Date17 November 2018 – ongoing
Metropolitan France and Réunion
Caused by
  • Decrease of fuel and motor taxes[17]
  • Improved standard of living[18]
  • Raise in minimum wage[19]
  • Resignation of President Emmanuel Macron and his government
  • End to unpopular austerity measures[18]
  • Government transparency and accountability to the working and middle classes[18]
MethodsProtests, civil disobedience, barricades, blocking traffic, disabling radars, rioting,[20][21] vandalism,[22] arson[23][24] and looting.[25]
StatusOngoing, as of December 19, 2018.[26]
  • Cancellation of the gas tax and a six-month moratorium on diesel and gasoline price changes by the French government[26]
  • The promise to raise the minimum wage by €100 per month by 2019[27]
  • An announcement that the price of the Électricité de France blue tariffs would not increase before March 2019.[28]
  • The elimination of tax on overtime and end-of-year bonuses[29]
  • Resignation of Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel.[30]
287,710 protesters at the peak (per French interior ministry)[31]
Death(s)8 civilians (in France)
Injuries1000+ civilians
~200+ injured police officers
Arrested1600 people (as of 4 December 2018)[32]
More than 2300 (8 December 2018 alone)[33]

The yellow vests movement (French: Mouvement des gilets jaunes, pronounced [ʒilɛ ʒon]) is a political movement that began with a petition posted online in May 2018. The first mass demonstrations began in France on 17 November 2018 and soon spread to Wallonia, Belgium. Motivated by rising fuel prices, the high cost of living and claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes,[34][35][36] especially in rural and peri-urban areas,[12][37] protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, the reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, the raising of the minimum wage, and the resignation of Emmanuel Macron as President of France. Few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election according to one poll which showed many of the yellow jackets had either not voted or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates.[38]

Yellow vests were chosen as a symbol because, since 2008, a law had required all French motorists to have such high-visibility vests in their vehicles when driving. As a result, reflective vests had become widely available, inexpensive, and recognizable.[17] By early December 2018, protesters with similar grievances—in other parts of Europe and the Middle East—had begun using the yellow vest symbol to draw attention to their agendas.


The issue around which the French movement centered at first was the projected 2019 increase in fuel taxes, particularly on diesel fuel.


Since the 1950s, the French government has subsidized the production of diesel engines. In particular, since 1980 Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology. A reduction in VAT taxes for corporate fleets also increased the prevalence of diesel cars in France.[39]

Fuel prices

The price of petrol (SP95-E10) decreased during 2018, from €1.47 per litre in January to €1.43 per litre in the last week of November.[40]

Prices of petrol and diesel fuel increased by 15 percent and 23 percent respectively between October 2017 and October 2018.[41] The world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year; for diesel, by 35 percent. Costs of distribution increased by 40 percent. VAT included, diesel taxes increased by 14 percent over one year and petrol taxes by 7.5 percent.[41] The tax increase had been 7.6 cents per litre on diesel and 3.9 cents on petrol in 2018, with a further increase of 6.5 cents on diesel and 2.9 cents on petrol planned for 1 January 2019.[42][43]

The taxes collected on the sale of fuel are:

  • The domestic consumption tax on energy products (TICPE, la Taxe intérieure de consommation sur les produits énergétiques), which is not calculated based on the price of oil, but rather at a fixed rate by volume. Part of this tax, paid at the pump, goes to regional governments, while another portion goes to the national government. Since 2014, this tax has included a carbon component—increased each year—in an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The TICPE for diesel fuel was raised sharply in 2017 and 2018 to bring it to the same level as the tax on petrol.
  • Value added tax (VAT), calculated on the sum of the price excluding tax and the TICPE. Its rate has been stable at 20 percent since 2014, after having been at 19.6 percent between 2000 and 2014.

The protest movement against fuel prices mainly concerns individuals, as a number of professions and activities benefit from partial or total exemptions from TICPE.[44][45]

The protesters criticize Édouard Philippe's second government for making individuals liable for the bulk of the cost of the carbon tax. As the carbon tax has progressively been ramping up to meet ecological objectives, many who have chosen fossil fuel-based heating for their homes, outside of city centers—where a car is required—are displeased. President Macron attempted to dispel these concerns in early November by offering special subsidies and incentives.[46]

Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018, with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at the same time and a further tax increase planned for 2019, making diesel as expensive as petrol.[47] President Macron is bearing the brunt of the protesters' anger for his extension of policies implemented under François Hollande's government.[47]

A high-visibility vest, the key symbol of the protests

Other non-union protests

One of the first known demonstrations in France against the taxation of petrol prices dates back to 1933 in Lille. The movement against tax increases also evokes the poujadism of the 1950s, which mobilized the middle classes and was articulated around a tax revolt.

"Slow-down movements" were also organized in the 1970s. In July 1992, such a movement was set up to protest against the introduction of the points-based permit.[48]

Economic reforms

The protesters claim that the fuel tax is intended to finance tax cuts for big business, with some critics such as Dania Koleilat Khatib claiming that spending should be cut instead.[49][50] Macron said the goal of the administration's economic reform program is to increase France's competitiveness in the global economy, and says that the fuel tax is intended to discourage fossil-fuel use.[46] Many of the yellow jackets are primarily motivated by economic difficulties due to low salaries and high energy prices.[51] The majority of the yellow jacket movement wants to fight climate change, but are opposed to forcing the working class and the poor to pay for a problem caused by multinational corporations.[52][53]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Gerakan rompi kuning
íslenska: Gulvestungar
Simple English: Yellow vests movement