Yekaterinburg

Yekaterinburg (in English)
Екатеринбург (Russian)
Sverdlovsk (1924-91)
-   City [1]  -
Collage de Ekaterimburgo.jpg
From top left to clockwise: Vysotsky, City Administrative Building, Sevastyanov's House, Yekaterinburg Metro station Botanicheskaya, Yekaterinburg City, Church of All Saints
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Location of Yekaterinburg in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day 3rd Saturday of August[ citation needed]
Administrative status (as of 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sverdlovsk Oblast [1]
Administratively subordinated to City of Yekaterinburg [2]
Administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast, [1] City of Yekaterinburg[ citation needed]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrug Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug [3]
Administrative center of Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug [3]
Head [4] Yevgeny Roizman [4]
Representative body City Duma [5]
Statistics
Area 495 km2 (191 sq mi) [6]
Population ( 2010 Census) 1,349,772 inhabitants [7]
Rank in 2010 4th
Population (2017 est.) 1,488,791 inhabitants [8]
Density 2,727/km2 (7,060/sq mi) [9]
Time zone YEKT ( UTC+05:00) [10]
Founded November 18, 1723 [11]
City status since 1796[ citation needed]
Previous names Yekaterinburg (until 1924), [12]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991) [12]
Postal code(s) [13] 620000
Dialing code(s) +7 343 [13]
Official website
Yekaterinburg on Wikimedia Commons

Yekaterinburg ( Russian: Екатеринбу́рг; IPA:  [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk]), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe and Asia. [14] [15] It is the main cultural and industrial center of the oblast. At the 2010 Census, it had a population of 1,349,772. [7] The Yekaterinburg agglomeration is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in Russia, as well as one of the three most developed post-industrial agglomerations of the country. Yekaterinburg is also the headquarters of the Central Military District.

Yekaterinburg was founded in November 18, 1723, named after Russian emperor Peter the Great's wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death, serving as the mining capital of the Russian Empire as well as a strategic connection between Europe and Asia at the time. In 1781, Catherine II "the Great" gave Yekaterinburg the status of a district town of Perm Province, and built the main road of the Empire, the Siberian Route, through the city. Yekaterinburg became a key city to Siberia, which had a rich amount of resources, and was known as the "window to Asia", a reference to Saint Petersburg as a "window to Europe". In the late 19th century, Yekaterinburg became one of the centers of revolutionary movements in the Urals. In 1924, after Russia became a socialist state, the city was named Sverdlovsk ( Russian: Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov. During the Soviet Era, Sverdlovsk was turned into an industrial and administrative powerhouse that played a part in the Soviet Union's economy. In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the city changed its name back to its historical name of Yekaterinburg.

Yekaterinburg is one of the most important economic centers in Russia, and the city had experienced economic and population growth recently. Some of the tallest skyscrapers of Russia are built here.

History

Imperial Era (1723-1917)

Template:Futher

Russian historian Vasily Tatishchev and Russian engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin founded Yekaterinburg in 1723 and named it after the wife of Russian emperor Peter the Great, Yekaterina, who later became empress regnant Catherine I. [11] The official date of the city's foundation is November 18, 1723. [11] It was granted town status in 1796.[ citation needed]

The city was one of Russia's first industrial cities, prompted at the start of the eighteenth century by decrees from the Tsar requiring the development in Yekaterinburg of metal-working businesses. The city was built, with extensive use of iron, to a regular square plan with iron works and residential buildings at the center. These were surrounded by fortified walls, so that Yekaterinburg was at the same time both a manufacturing center and a fortress at the frontier between Europe and Asia.[ citation needed] It therefore found itself at the heart of Russia's strategy for further development of the entire Ural region. The so-called Siberian highway became operational in 1763 and placed the city on an increasingly important transit route, which led to its development as a focus of trade and commerce between east and west, and gave rise to the description of the city as the "window on Asia".[ citation needed] With the growth in trade and the city's administrative importance, the ironworks became less critical, and the more important buildings were increasingly built using expensive stone. Small manufacturing and trading businesses proliferated. In 1781 Russia's empress, Catherine the Great, nominated the city as the administrative center for the wider region.

Following the October Revolution, the family of deposed Tsar Nicholas II were sent to internal exile in Yekaterinburg where they were imprisoned in the Ipatiev House in the city.

In the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day. On July 16, 1918, the Czechoslovak legions were closing on Yekaterinburg. The Bolsheviks executed the deposed imperial family, believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue them. The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.

Snow-covered statue of Yakov Sverdlov

Soviet Era (1917-1991)

In 1924, after the Russian Revolution, the city of Yekaterinburg was named Sverdlovsk after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov. During the 1930s, Sverdlovsk was one of several places developed by the Soviet government as a center of heavy industry, during which time the famous Uralmash was built. Then, during World War II, many state technical institutions and whole factories were relocated to Sverdlovsk away from cities affected by war (mostly Moscow), with many of them staying in Sverdlovsk after the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections were also partly evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk in July 1941 and remained there until October 1945.[ citation needed]

The lookalike five-story apartment blocks that remain today in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, and other residential areas of Sverdlovsk sprang up in the 1960s, under the direction of Khrushchev's government.

On May 1, 1960, an American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers while under the employ of the CIA, was shot down over Sverdlovsk Oblast. He was captured, put on trial, found guilty of espionage and sentenced to seven years of hard labor. He served only about a year before being exchanged for Rudolf Abel, a high-ranking KGB spy, who had been apprehended in the United States in 1957.

Cathedral on the Blood stands on the site of the Ipatiev House, where the Romanovs—the last royal family of Russia—were executed

In 1977, the Ipatiev House was demolished by order of Boris Yeltsin, to prevent it from being used as a rallying location for monarchists. Yeltsin later became the first President of Russia and represented the people at the funeral of the former Tsar in 1998. [16]

There was an anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk in April and May 1979, which was attributed to a release from the Sverdlovsk-19 military facility. [17]

Contemporary Era (1991-present)

During the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the home city of President Boris Yeltsin, was selected by him as a temporary reserve capital for the Russian Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Russian government. A reserve cabinet headed by Oleg Lobov was sent to the city, where Yeltsin enjoyed strong popular support at that time. [18] Shortly after the failure of the coup and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city regained its historical name of Yekaterinburg on September 4, 1991. However, Sverdlovsk Oblast, of which Yekaterinburg is the administrative center, kept its name.

In the 2000s, an intensive growth of trade, business, and tourism began in Yekaterinburg. In 2003, Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder negotiated in Yekaterinburg. From June 15 to 17, 2009, the SCO and BRIC summits were held in Yekaterinburg, which deeply affected the economic, cultural and tourist situation in the city. In July 13-16, 2010, a meeting between Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and German Chancellor Angela Merkel took place in the city.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jekaterinburg
العربية: يكاترينبورغ
azərbaycanca: Yekaterinburq
башҡортса: Екатеринбург
беларуская: Екацярынбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Екацярынбург
български: Екатеринбург
bosanski: Jekaterinburg
brezhoneg: Yekaterinbourg
català: Iekaterinburg
Чӑвашла: Екатеринбург
Cebuano: Yekaterinburg
čeština: Jekatěrinburg
chiTumbuka: Yekaterinburg
Cymraeg: Ekaterinburg
Deutsch: Jekaterinburg
dolnoserbski: Jekaterinburg
español: Ekaterimburgo
Esperanto: Jekaterinburgo
euskara: Jekaterinburg
français: Iekaterinbourg
Gaeilge: Yekaterinburg
hornjoserbsce: Jekaterinburg
hrvatski: Ekaterinburg
Bahasa Indonesia: Yekaterinburg
italiano: Ekaterinburg
kalaallisut: Jekaterinburg
қазақша: Екатеринбург
Kiswahili: Yekaterinburg
Кыргызча: Екатеринбург
latviešu: Jekaterinburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Jekaterinburg
lietuvių: Jekaterinburgas
Limburgs: Jekaterinaburg
македонски: Екатеринбург
მარგალური: ეკატერინბურგი
Bahasa Melayu: Yekaterinburg
Nederlands: Jekaterinenburg
нохчийн: Екатеринбург
norsk nynorsk: Jekaterinburg
олык марий: Екатеринбург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yekaterinburg
پنجابی: ییکیترنبرگ
Перем Коми: Катькар
português: Ecaterimburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yekaterinburg
română: Ekaterinburg
Runa Simi: Jekaterinburg
русский: Екатеринбург
Simple English: Yekaterinburg
slovenčina: Jekaterinburg
slovenščina: Jekaterinburg
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єкатєрїнбоургъ
ślůnski: Jekaterinburg
српски / srpski: Јекатеринбург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jekaterinburg
svenska: Jekaterinburg
Tagalog: Yekaterinburg
татарча/tatarça: Екатеринбург
Türkçe: Yekaterinburg
українська: Єкатеринбург
vepsän kel’: Jekaterinburg
Tiếng Việt: Yekaterinburg
Volapük: Yekaterinburg
Winaray: Yekaterinburg