Yekaterinburg

Yekaterinburg
Екатеринбург (Russian)
Sverdlovsk (1924-91)
-  City[1]  -
EKB Montage 2017.png
Clockwise: City Administrative Building, Ural State College, Yekaterinburg City, Sevastyanov's House, Boris Yeltsin Presidential Center, Church of All Saints
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Location of Yekaterinburg in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day3rd Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSverdlovsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated toCity of Yekaterinburg[2]
Administrative center ofSverdlovsk Oblast,[1] City of Yekaterinburg[citation needed]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrugYekaterinburg Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofYekaterinburg Urban Okrug[3]
Head[4]Yevgeny Roizman[4]
Representative bodyCity Duma[5]
Statistics
Area495 km2 (191 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census)1,349,772 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 20104th
Population (2017 est.)1,488,791 inhabitants[8]
Density2,727/km2 (7,060/sq mi)[9]
Time zoneYEKT (UTC+05:00)[10]
FoundedNovember 18, 1723[11]
City status since1796[citation needed]
Previous namesYekaterinburg (until 1924),[12]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)[12]
Postal code(s)[13]620000
Dialing code(s)+7 343[13]
Website
[[:commons:Category:

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|Yekaterinburg]] on Wikimedia Commons

Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг, IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk]), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Asia and Europe.[14][15] It is the main cultural and industrial center of the oblast. At the 2010 Census, it had a population of 1,349,772.[7] Yekaterinburg's urban area is the fourth largest in Russia, as well as one of the three most developed post-industrial urban areas of the country. Yekaterinburg is also the headquarters of the Central Military District.

Yekaterinburg was founded on 18 November 1723, named after Russian emperor Peter the Great's wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death, serving as the mining capital of the Russian Empire as well as a strategic connection between Europe and Asia at the time. In 1781, Catherine II "the Great" gave Yekaterinburg the status of a district town of Perm Province, and built the main road of the Empire, the Siberian Route, through the city. Yekaterinburg became a key city to Siberia, which had rich resources, and was known as the "window to Asia", a reference to Saint Petersburg as a "window to Europe". In the late 19th century, Yekaterinburg became one of the centers of revolutionary movements in the Urals. In 1924, after Russia became a socialist state, the city was named Sverdlovsk (Russian: Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov. During the Soviet Era, Sverdlovsk was turned into an industrial and administrative powerhouse that played a part in the Soviet Union's economy. In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the city changed its name back to its historical name of Yekaterinburg.

Yekaterinburg is one of the most important economic centers in Russia, and the city had experienced economic and population growth recently. Some of the tallest buildings in Russia are located in the city.

History

Prehistory

Casting mold that can hold 5 sickles, dating back to the Bronze Age

In the land now occupied by Yekaterinburg, there have been settlements of people since ancient times. The earliest of the ancient settlements dated back to 8000 BC to 7000 BC during the Mesolithic Period. In the area of Isetskoe Pravoberezhnoye I, a settlement dating back to 6000 BC to 5000 BC of the Neolithic Period, stone processing workshops were found with artifacts such as grinding plates, anvils, clumps of rock, tools and finished products. According to the analysis of artifacts, the inhabitants of the settlement used over 50 different rocks and minerals to make tools, which indicates a good knowledge of the population of that time of the region's natural resources. On the peninsula Gamayun (left bank of the Upper Iset Pond), there are archaeological monuments dating back to the Chalcolithic Period: in the upper part there were found workshops for the production of stone tools, in the lower part - a settlement of two dwellings belonging to the Ayat people. Also in this area traces of his stay (the original dishes with the image of birds, evidence of metallurgical production) left the population of the Koptyak people, dating back to 2000 BC , while on the monument of Tent I were found the only traces of burials of this culture in the Urals. In the Bronze Age, the Gamayun people lived in the area, leaving behind fragments of ceramics, weapons, ornaments.[16][17][18]

Archaeological artifacts in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg were discovered for the first time at the end of the 19th century in an area being constructed for a railway. Excavations and research took place starting from the 20th century. The artifacts are kept in museums such as the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, the Hermitage, and the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences.[17]

Imperial Era

Yekaterinburg, 1789

Russian historian Vasily Tatishchev and Russian engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin founded Yekaterinburg with the construction of a massive iron-making plant under the degree of Russian emperor Peter the Great in 1723.[19] They named the city after the emperor's wife, Yekaterina, who later became empress regnant Catherine I.[11] The official date of the city's foundation is 18 November 1723, when the shops was carried out a test run of the bloomery for trip hammers.[11] The plant was commissioned on 24 November, 6 days later, which its size and technical equipment exceeded all metallurgical enterprises not only in the country, but also in the world.[20] It was granted town status in 1796.[citation needed]

The city was one of Russia's first industrial cities, prompted at the start of the eighteenth century by decrees from the Tsar requiring the development in Yekaterinburg of metal-working businesses. The city was built, with extensive use of iron, to a regular square plan with iron works and residential buildings at the center. These were surrounded by fortified walls, so that Yekaterinburg was at the same time both a manufacturing center and a fortress at the frontier between Europe and Asia. It therefore found itself at the heart of Russia's strategy for further development of the entire Ural region. The so-called Siberian Route became operational in 1763 and placed the city on an increasingly important transit route, which led to its development as a focus of trade and commerce between east and west, and gave rise to the description of the city as the "window on Asia". With the growth in trade and the city's administrative importance, the ironworks became less critical, and the more important buildings were increasingly built using expensive stone. Small manufacturing and trading businesses proliferated. In 1781 Russia's empress, Catherine the Great, nominated the city as the administrative center for the wider region.[21][22]

Following the October Revolution, the family of deposed Tsar Nicholas II were sent to internal exile in Yekaterinburg where they were imprisoned in the Ipatiev House in the city. In the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day. On 16 July 1918, the Czechoslovak legions were closing on Yekaterinburg. The Bolsheviks executed the deposed imperial family, believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue them. The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.[23][24] The city remained under the control of the White movement in which a provisional government was established. The Red Army took back the city on 14 July 1919, and restored Soviet authority.[25][26]

Soviet Era

Snow-covered statue of Yakov Sverdlov

In the years following the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, political authority of the Urals was transferred from Perm to Yekaterinburg. On October 19, 1920, Yekaterinburg established its first university, the Ural State University, as well as polytechnic, pedagogical, and medical institutions under the decree of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Enterprises in the city ravaged by the war were nationalized, including: the Metalist (formerly Yates) Plant, the Verkh-Isetsky (formerly Yakovleva) Plant, and the Lenin flax-spinning factory (formerly Makarov). In 1924, the city of Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov.[27][28][dead link][25]

During the reign of Joseph Stalin, Sverdlovsk was one of several places developed by the Soviet government as a center of heavy industry. Old factories were reconstructed and new large factories were built, especially those specialized in machine-building and metal-working. These plants included Uralmash, Magnitogorsk, and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. During this time, the population of Sverdlovsk has grown more than 3 times, and it has become one of the fastest growing cities of the USSR. At that time, very large powers were given to the regional authorities. By the end of the 1930s, there were 140 industrial enterprises, 25 research institutes, and 12 higher education institutions in Sverdlovsk.[29][30][dead link]

During World War II, the city became the headquarters of the Ural Military District on the basis of which more than 500 different military units and formations were formed, including the 22nd Army and the Ural Volunteer Tank Corps. Uralmash became a main production site for armored vehicles. Many state technical institutions and whole factories were relocated to Sverdlovsk away from cities affected by war (mostly Moscow), with many of them staying in Sverdlovsk after the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections were also partly evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk in July 1941 and remained there until October 1945.[31]

Cathedral on the Blood stands on the site of the Ipatiev House, where the Romanovs—the last royal family of Russia—were executed

In the postwar years, new industrial and agricultural enterprises were put into operation and massive housing construction began.[32][25] The lookalike five-story apartment blocks that remain today in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, and other residential areas of Sverdlovsk sprang up in the 1960s, under the direction of Khrushchev's government.[33] In 1977, the Ipatiev House was demolished by order of Boris Yeltsin in accordance to a resolution from the Politburo in order to prevent it from being used as a rallying location for monarchists. Yeltsin later became the first President of Russia and represented the people at the funeral of the former Tsar in 1998.[34] There was an anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk in April and May 1979, which was attributed to a release from the Sverdlovsk-19 military facility.[35]

Contemporary Era

During the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the home city of President Boris Yeltsin, was selected by him as a temporary reserve capital for the Russian Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Russian government. A reserve cabinet headed by Oleg Lobov was sent to the city, where Yeltsin enjoyed strong popular support at that time.[36] Shortly after the failure of the coup and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city regained its historical name of Yekaterinburg on September 4, 1991. However, Sverdlovsk Oblast, of which Yekaterinburg is the administrative center, kept its name.[37][38]

In the 2000s, an intensive growth of trade, business, and tourism began in Yekaterinburg. In 2003, Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder negotiated in Yekaterinburg. From June 15 to 17, 2009, the SCO and BRIC summits were held in Yekaterinburg, which deeply affected the economic, cultural and tourist situation in the city. In July 13–16, 2010, a meeting between Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and German Chancellor Angela Merkel took place in the city.[39]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jekaterinburg
العربية: يكاترينبورغ
asturianu: Ekaterimburgo
azərbaycanca: Yekaterinburq
башҡортса: Екатеринбург
беларуская: Екацярынбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Екацярынбург
български: Екатеринбург
bosanski: Jekaterinburg
brezhoneg: Yekaterinbourg
català: Iekaterinburg
Чӑвашла: Екатеринбург
Cebuano: Yekaterinburg
čeština: Jekatěrinburg
chiTumbuka: Yekaterinburg
Cymraeg: Ekaterinburg
Deutsch: Jekaterinburg
dolnoserbski: Jekaterinburg
español: Ekaterimburgo
Esperanto: Jekaterinburgo
euskara: Jekaterinburg
français: Iekaterinbourg
Gaeilge: Yekaterinburg
hornjoserbsce: Jekaterinburg
hrvatski: Ekaterinburg
Bahasa Indonesia: Yekaterinburg
italiano: Ekaterinburg
kalaallisut: Jekaterinburg
қазақша: Екатеринбург
Kiswahili: Yekaterinburg
Кыргызча: Екатеринбург
latviešu: Jekaterinburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Jekaterinburg
lietuvių: Jekaterinburgas
Limburgs: Jekaterinaburg
македонски: Екатеринбург
მარგალური: ეკატერინბურგი
Bahasa Melayu: Yekaterinburg
Nederlands: Jekaterinenburg
нохчийн: Екатеринбург
norsk nynorsk: Jekaterinburg
олык марий: Екатеринбург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yekaterinburg
پنجابی: ییکیترنبرگ
Перем Коми: Катькар
português: Ecaterimburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yekaterinburg
qırımtatarca: Yekaterinburg
română: Ekaterinburg
Runa Simi: Jekaterinburg
русский: Екатеринбург
Simple English: Yekaterinburg
slovenčina: Jekaterinburg
slovenščina: Jekaterinburg
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єкатєрїнбоургъ
ślůnski: Jekaterinburg
српски / srpski: Јекатеринбург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jekaterinburg
svenska: Jekaterinburg
Tagalog: Yekaterinburg
татарча/tatarça: Екатеринбур
Türkçe: Yekaterinburg
українська: Єкатеринбург
vepsän kel’: Jekaterinburg
Tiếng Việt: Yekaterinburg
Volapük: Yekaterinburg
Winaray: Yekaterinburg