World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an
Various religious and secular organisations have the stated aim of achieving world peace through addressing
Many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below.
The term is traced back to the Roman Emperor
But the inauguration of such a glorious century of peace demands from us abandonment of old conceptions of peace. The new Angel of Peace must no longer be pictured as a charming but helpless lady with an olive branch in her hand, but like the Goddess of Justice with a balance in her left and a sword in her right; or like the Archangel Michael, with a fiery sword and wings of steel, fighting the devil to restore and protect the peace of heaven.
In fact, near the entrance to the headquarters of the
In 2016, former US Secretary of Defense
You, and your fellow soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines will solidify the rebalance, you will make this network work, and you will help the Asia-Pacific ... realize a principled and peaceful and prosperous future. And play the role only America can play ... You'll do so with strength.
Introduction to US National Security and Defense Strategies of 2018 states: The US force posture combined with the allies will "preserve peace through strength". The document proceeds to detail what "achieving peace through strength requires".
Associated with peace through strength are concepts of preponderance of power (as opposed to
World peace would be a consequence of the anarchist or communist world. According to the dialectic materialist theory of Karl Marx, the humanity is divided in just 2 classes in capitalism, the proletarians -that do not possess the means of production- and the bourgeoisie -that possesses the means of production-, once that the communist revolution, that shall abolish the private propriety of the means of production, have happened, humanity will not be divided anymore and a lot of changes will happen. Through a period called socialism the rule of the proletariat will take charge of getting rid of the last vestiges of capitalism, and help to make the revolution worldwide. Once the private propriety have been abolished worldwide, the state will not longer be useful and will disappear, because the government only exists to protect the dominant class, effectively dominating with violence and fear the submitted class, but there will not be classes anymore, and therefore none will require to dominate anyone. Instead organisations of workers will manage the production of things, but no organisation will have any military power, neither police force or prisons.
The main principle of Marx's theory is that the material conditions limit the spiritual conditions. People will not be violent but respecting, peaceful and altruistic, because the material conditions will finally allow them to be so. They do not longer need to live just aiming to earn money, but they live to develop themselves spiritually. With the material problems solved, and everyone receiving education and being provided the appropriate circumstances for their intellectual development, there will not any problem, and society will work getting from each one what one has the capacity to give, and providing to each one what one need.[
There are, however, several
In her essay "The Roots of War",
However, free trade does not prevent a nation from establishing some sort of emergency plan to become temporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nation could simply acquire what it needs from a different nation. A good example of this is
More generally, free trade—while not making wars impossible—can make wars, and restrictions on trade caused by wars, very costly for international companies with production, research, and sales in many different nations. Thus, a powerful lobby—unless there are only national companies—will argue against wars.
After World War II, the United Nations was established by the
World peace has been depicted as a consequence of local, self-determined behaviors that inhibit the institutionalization of power and ensuing violence. The solution is not so much based on an agreed agenda, or an investment in higher authority whether divine or political, but rather a
Through most of human history societies have been based on personal relations: individuals in groups know each other and exchange favors. Today in most lower-income societies hierarchies of groups distribute wealth based on personal relationships among group leaders, a process often linked with clientelism and corruption.
Market-oriented socio-economies are integrated not with personal ties but the impersonal force of the market where most individuals are economically dependent on trusting strangers in contracts enforced by the state. This creates loyalty to a state that enforces the rule of law and contracts impartially and reliably and provides equal protection in the freedom to contract – that is, liberal democracy. Wars cannot happen within or between nations with market-integrated economies because war requires the harming of others, and in these kinds of economies everyone is always economically better off when others in the market are also better off, not worse off. Rather than fight, citizens in market-oriented socio-economies care deeply about everyone's rights and welfare, so they demand economic growth at home and economic cooperation and human rights abroad. In fact, nations with market-oriented socio-economies tend to agree on global issues and not a single fatality has occurred in any dispute between them.
Economic norms theory should not be confused with classical liberal theory. The latter assumes that markets are natural and that freer markets promote wealth. In contrast, Economic norms theory shows how market-contracting is a learned norm, and state spending, regulation, and redistribution are necessary to ensure that almost everyone can participate in the "social market" economy, which is in everyone's interests. One proposed mechanism for world peace involves consumer purchasing of renewable and equitable local food and power sources involving