Gray wolf
Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene – present (810,000–0 years BP[1])
European grey wolf in Prague zoo.jpg
Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus).
Scientific classification edit
C. lupus
Binomial name
Canis lupus

refer Subspecies of Canis lupus

Grey wolf distribution with subdivisions.PNG
Historical (red + green) and modern (green) range of wild subspecies of C. lupus

The wolf (Canis lupus),[a] also known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf,[4][5] is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb) and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb).[6] It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle.[7] Its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red and brown to black also occur.[5] Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed., 2005), a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus.[8]

The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature,[9] and its highly advanced expressive behavior.[10][11] It is nonetheless closely related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote,[12] and golden jackal,[13][14] to produce fertile hybrids. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both the Old and New Worlds,[15] and originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.[15] It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring.[16] The gray wolf is typically an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers[9][17][18][19] posing a serious threat to it. It feeds primarily on large ungulates, though it also eats smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage.[5] A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be relatively old, and the maximum lifespan is about 16 years.[20]

The global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000.[21] The gray wolf is one of the world's best-known and most-researched animals, with probably more books written about it than any other wildlife species.[22] It has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies.[23] Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people, mainly children, but this is rare, as wolves are relatively few, live away from people, and have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.[24]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Дыгъужь
адыгабзэ: Тыгъужъ
Afrikaans: Wolf
Alemannisch: Wolf
አማርኛ: ተኵላ
Ænglisc: Wulf
Аҧсшәа: Абгаду
العربية: ذئب رمادي
aragonés: Canis lupus
armãneashti: Lupu
arpetan: Lop
asturianu: Canis lupus
Atikamekw: Mahikan
Avañe'ẽ: Jaguaru
авар: БацӀ
azərbaycanca: Adi canavar
تۆرکجه: قۇرد
বাংলা: নেকড়ে
Bân-lâm-gú: Lông
башҡортса: Бүре
беларуская: Воўк
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Воўк
български: Вълк
Boarisch: Woif
བོད་ཡིག: སྤྱང་ཀི
bosanski: Vuk
brezhoneg: Bleiz gris
буряад: Шоно
català: Llop
Чӑвашла: Кашкăр
Cebuano: Canis lupus
čeština: Vlk obecný
corsu: Lupu
Cymraeg: Blaidd
dansk: Ulv
davvisámegiella: Gumpe
Deutsch: Wolf
Diné bizaad: Mąʼiitsoh
eesti: Hunt
Ελληνικά: Γκρίζος λύκος
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Lauv
эрзянь: Верьгиз
español: Canis lupus
Esperanto: Lupo
euskara: Otso
فارسی: گرگ
føroyskt: Úlvur
français: Canis lupus
Frysk: Wolf
Gaeilge: Mac tíre
Gàidhlig: Madadh-allaidh
galego: Lobo
ГӀалгӀай: Бордз
گیلکی: ورگ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍅𐌿𐌻𐍆𐍃
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lòng
한국어: 회색늑대
հայերեն: Գորշ գայլ
हिन्दी: भेड़िया
hornjoserbsce: Wjelk
hrvatski: Sivi vuk
Ido: Volfo
Bahasa Indonesia: Serigala abu-abu
interlingua: Lupo
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᒪᕈᒃ
Iñupiak: Amaġuq
Ирон: Бирæгъ
íslenska: Úlfur
italiano: Canis lupus
עברית: זאב מצוי
Basa Jawa: Srenggala
Kabɩyɛ: Kpentɔɔyaɣ
kalaallisut: Amaroq
ქართული: მგელი
kaszëbsczi: Szari wilk
қазақша: Қасқыр
kernowek: Bleydh
коми: Кӧин
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lou (non)
kurdî: Gur
Кыргызча: Карышкыр
кырык мары: Пирӹ
Ladino: Lovo
лакку: БарцӀ
latgaļu: Palākais vylks
Latina: Lupus
latviešu: Pelēkais vilks
Lëtzebuergesch: Wollef
лезги: Жанавур
lietuvių: Pilkasis vilkas
Ligure: Canis lupus
Limburgs: Wouf
Lingua Franca Nova: Lupo
Livvinkarjala: Hukku
lumbaart: Canis lupus
македонски: Волк
മലയാളം: ചെന്നായ്
მარგალური: გერი
مازِرونی: ورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Serigala kelabu
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lòng
мокшень: Вьрьгаз
монгол: Саарал чоно
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဝံပုလွေ
Nāhuatl: Cuetlachtli
Nederlands: Wolf
Nedersaksies: Wulv
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᒪᐦᐃᐦᑲᓐ
नेपाली: ब्वाँसो
日本語: オオカミ
Napulitano: Canis lupus
нохчийн: Борз
norsk: Ulv
norsk nynorsk: Ulv
Nouormand: Loup
occitan: Canis lupus
олык марий: Пире
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Boʻri
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਘਿਆੜ
پنجابی: بگیاڑ
پښتو: لېوه
Перем Коми: Кӧин
Picard: Leu
Piemontèis: Luv
polski: Wilk szary
Ποντιακά: Λύκον
português: Lobo
română: Lup cenușiu
Runa Simi: Atawka
русиньскый: Вовк
русский: Волк
саха тыла: Бөрө
Scots: Wouf
Seeltersk: Wulf
shqip: Ujku gri
sicilianu: Lupu
Simple English: Grey wolf
سنڌي: بگھڙ
slovenčina: Vlk dravý
slovenščina: Volk
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Влькъ
ślůnski: Wilk
Soomaaliga: Yeey
српски / srpski: Вук
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vuk
suomi: Susi
svenska: Varg
தமிழ்: ஓநாய்
татарча/tatarça: Бүре
тоҷикӣ: Гург
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hó'nehe
Türkçe: Kurt
тыва дыл: Бөрү
удмурт: Кион
українська: Вовк
اردو: بھیڑیا
Vahcuengh: Manaez
vèneto: Łovo
vepsän kel’: Händikaz
Tiếng Việt: Sói xám
Võro: Susi
walon: Leu
Winaray: Canis lupus
ייִדיש: וואלף
Zazaki: Verg
žemaitėška: Vėlks