A wind farm or wind park is a group of
Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in China, India, and the United States. For example, the
Individual wind turbine designs continue to increase in power, resulting in fewer turbines being needed for the same total output. See
The location is critical to the success of a wind farm. Conditions contributing to a successful wind farm location include: wind conditions, access to electric transmission, physical access, and local electric prices.
The faster the average windspeed the more electricity the wind turbine will generate, so faster winds are economically better for wind farm developers. The balancing factor is that strong gusts and high turbulence require stronger more expensive turbines, otherwise they risk damage. The ideal wind conditions would be strong steady winds with low turbulence coming from a single direction.
Usually sites are screened on the basis of a
The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings.
How closely to space the turbines together is a major factor in wind farm design. The closer the turbines are together the more the upwind turbines block wind from their neighbors. However spacing turbines far apart increases the costs of roads and cables, and raises the amount of land needed to install a specific capacity of turbines. As a result of these factors, turbine spacing varies by site. Generally speaking manufacturers require 3.5 times the rotor diameter of the turbine between turbines as a minimum. Closer spacing is possible depending on the turbine model, the conditions at the site, and how the site will be operated.[