Location of West Bengal in India
Country India Established 26 January 1950 Capital Kolkata Kolkata Districts Government • Body Government of West Bengal • Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar  • Chief Minister ( Mamata Banerjee ) AITC • Legislature (295) Legislative Assembly • High Court Calcutta High Court • Chief Justice Thottathil B. Radhakrishnan Area • Total 88,752 km 2 (34,267 sq mi) Area rank 13th Population • Total 91,347,736 • Rank 4th • Density 1,029/km 2 (2,670/sq mi) Demonym(s) Bengali GDP (2017–18) • Total (US$150 billion) ₹10.20 lakh crore • Per capita (US$1,400) ₹95,562 Languages • Official • Additional official in two sub-divisions of Nepali Darjeeling in blocks, subdivisions or districts exceeding 10% of the population  Time zone ( UTC+05:30 ) IST ISO 3166 code IN-WB Vehicle registration WB HDI (2017) 0.637 ( medium) · 21st  Literacy (2011) 77.08%  Sex ratio (2011) 950 /1000 ♀ ♂  Website Official website 294 elected, 1 nominated ^* West Bengal ( /; : Bengali Paschim Banga) is a in the eastern region of India along the state . With over Bay of Bengal inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's million state. West Bengal is the fourth-most populous , with an area of 88,752 km thirteenth-largest Indian state 2 (34,267 sq mi). Part of the ethno-linguistic of the Bengal region , it borders Indian subcontinent in the east, and Bangladesh and Nepal in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Bhutan , Odisha , Jharkhand , Bihar , and Sikkim . The state capital is Assam (Calcutta) the Kolkata , and center of the seventh-largest city in India in the country. West Bengal includes the third-largest metropolitan area , the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region , the Ganges delta , and the coastal Rarh region . The main ethnic group is the Sundarbans , with Bengalis forming the demographic majority. Bengali Hindus
The area's early history featured a succession of
, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Indian empires and Hinduism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Buddhism (kingdoms), while the earliest cities date back to the Janapadas . The region was part of several ancient pan−Indian empires, including the Vedic period and Mauryans . It was also a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Guptas served as the capital of the Gauda , the Buddhist Gauda Kingdom (8th–11th century) and Pala Empire Hindu (11th–12th century). Sena Empire was introduced through trade with the Islam , but following the early conquest of Abbasid Caliphate and the establishment of the Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji , it spread across the entire Bengal region. Later, occasional Delhi Sultanate reinforced the process of conversion by building Muslim raiders , mosques , and madrasas . During the Islamic khanqahs , founded in 1352, Bengal was major Bengal Sultanate in the world and was often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. It was absorbed into the trading nation in 1576. Simultaneously, some parts of the region were ruled by several Mughal Empire , and Hindu states landlords, and part of it was briefly overrun by the Baro-Bhuyan . The Suri Empire was heralded by Mughal Bengal as the "paradise of the nations", Aurangzeb since it was the empire's most economically developed province. It became a leading exporter to the world,    and a center of worldwide industries such as  cotton , textiles , silk and  . shipbuilding Its citizens'  was among the world's highest. standard of living  Bengal accounted for 40% of  imports from Dutch , for example, including more than 50% of its textiles and around 80% of its silks. Asia Bengal's economy bypassed the period of  . proto-industrialization 
By the 18th century, the state was ruled by the
, before being conquered by the Nawabs of Bengal at the British East India Company in 1757. Battle of Plassey Calcutta served for many years as the capital of  . The region was later administered by the British India as part of the United Kingdom (1757–1905; 1912–1947) and Bengal Presidency Province (1905–1912) in British India. Eastern Bengal and Assam  Bengal faced multiple  and famines under deindustrialization . British Raj  The socio-cultural movements of the  played an influential role in Bengal Renaissance and the region was a hotbed of the decolonization . Indian independence movement In 1947, the  and the Bengal Legislative Council voted on the Bengal Legislative Assembly along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, and Partition of Bengal , a province of East Bengal which later became the independent Bangladesh. Several Pakistan throughout regional and pan−Indian empires have shaped its Bengal's history , culture , and cuisine . architecture
Post independence, West Bengal's economy is based on
and agricultural production . small and medium-sized enterprises The  is the economy of West Bengal in India with sixth-largest state economy (US$150 billion) in ₹10.20 lakh crore and a per capita GDP of gross domestic product (US$1,400). ₹95,000 The state has high  with government debt (US$52 billion) or 35% of GSDP, moderate unemployment, and low ₹3.6 lakh crore . per capita income  In  it ranks human development index among Indian states. twenty-first Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India".  West Bengal has two  and one of the top World Heritage sites in India. tourism destinations 
The origin of the name
( Bengal Bangla and Bongo in ) is unknown. One theory suggests the word derives from "Bang", the name of a Bengali tribe that settled the region around 1000 Dravidian BCE. The Bengali word  Bongo might have been derived from the ancient (or kingdom of Vanga Banga). Although some early mentions the name Sanskrit literature Vanga, the region's early history is obscure.
In 1947, at the end of
over the British rule the Indian subcontinent and the Bengal Legislative Council voted on the Bengal Legislative Assembly along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, which continued as an Partition of Bengal , and Indian state , a province of East Bengal , which came to be known be as Pakistan and later became the independent Bangladesh.
In 2011 the
proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga ( Government of West Bengal : Bengali পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Pôshchimbônggô). This is the native name of the state, literally meaning "western Bengal" in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the  passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in West Bengal Legislative Assembly , and "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the English government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Trinamool Congress , the Indian National Congress , and the Left Front opposed the resolution. Bharatiya Janata Party However, the central government has turned down the proposal maintaining the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three, and it should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighboring  ). Bangladesh