West Bengal

West Bengal

Paschim Banga
Howrah Pano 3.jpg
Ramakrishna Belur Math, Howrah.jpg
Cooch Behar Palace in Cooch Behar.JPG
Bengal Tiger yawning in Sundarban.jpg
Hazarduari palace front view.jpg
Digha Sankarpur 2Arnab.jpg
Dakhineshwar Temple beside the Hoogly, West Bengal.JPG
Darjeeling.jpg
Location of West Bengal in India
Location of West Bengal in India
Country India
Established26 January 1950
CapitalKolkata
  • Largest city
Kolkata
Districts
Government
 • BodyGovernment of West Bengal
 • GovernorJagdeep Dhankhar[1]
 • Chief MinisterMamata Banerjee (AITC)
 • LegislatureLegislative Assembly (295)
 • High CourtCalcutta High Court
 • Chief JusticeThottathil B. Radhakrishnan
Area
 • Total88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi)
Area rank13th
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total91,347,736
 • Rank4th
 • Density1,029/km2 (2,670/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bengali
GDP (2017–18)
 • Total10.20 lakh crore (US$150 billion)
 • Per capita95,562 (US$1,400)
Languages
 • Official
 • Additional officialNepali in two sub-divisions of Darjeeling[5] in blocks, subdivisions or districts exceeding 10% of the population
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Vehicle registrationWB
HDI (2017)Increase 0.637 (medium) · 21st[9]
Literacy (2011)77.08%[10]
Sex ratio (2011)950 /1000 [11]
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata
^* 294 elected, 1 nominated

West Bengal (l/; Bengali: Paschim Banga) is a state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal. With over  million inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's fourth-most populous state. West Bengal is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). Part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata (Calcutta) the seventh-largest city in India, and center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country. West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group is the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

The area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas (kingdoms), while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. The region was part of several ancient pan−Indian empires, including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was also a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire (8th–11th century) and Hindu Sena Empire (11th–12th century). Islam was introduced through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate, but following the early conquest of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji and the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, it spread across the entire Bengal region. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques, madrasas, and khanqahs. During the Islamic Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, Bengal was major trading nation in the world and was often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. It was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576. Simultaneously, some parts of the region were ruled by several Hindu states, and Baro-Bhuyan landlords, and part of it was briefly overrun by the Suri Empire. The Mughal Bengal was heralded by Aurangzeb as the "paradise of the nations",[12] since it was the empire's most economically developed province. It became a leading exporter to the world,[13][14][15] and a center of worldwide industries such as cotton textiles, silk,[16] and shipbuilding.[17] Its citizens' standard of living was among the world's highest.[18][19] Bengal accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of its textiles and around 80% of its silks.[13] Bengal's economy bypassed the period of proto-industrialization.[20]

By the 18th century, the state was ruled by the Nawabs of Bengal, before being conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[21][22] Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The region was later administered by the United Kingdom as part of the Bengal Presidency (1757–1905; 1912–1947) and Eastern Bengal and Assam Province (1905–1912) in British India.[23][24] Bengal faced multiple famines and deindustrialization under British Raj.[25][26] The socio-cultural movements of the Bengal Renaissance played an influential role in decolonization and the region was a hotbed of the Indian independence movement.[27] In 1947, the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly voted on the Partition of Bengal along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which later became the independent Bangladesh. Several regional and pan−Indian empires throughout Bengal's history have shaped its culture, cuisine, and architecture.

Post independence, West Bengal's economy is based on agricultural production and small and medium-sized enterprises.[28] The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with 10.20 lakh crore (US$150 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 95,000 (US$1,400).[3] The state has high government debt with 3.6 lakh crore (US$52 billion) or 35% of GSDP, moderate unemployment, and low per capita income.[29][30] In human development index it ranks twenty-first among Indian states.[9] Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India".[31] West Bengal has two World Heritage sites and one of the top tourism destinations in India.[32][33]

Etymology

The origin of the name Bengal (Bangla and Bongo in Bengali) is unknown. One theory suggests the word derives from "Bang", the name of a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE.[34] The Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure.[35]

In 1947, at the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly voted on the Partition of Bengal along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state, and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan, which came to be known be as East Pakistan and later became the independent Bangladesh.[36][37]

In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Pôshchimbônggô).[38] This is the native name of the state, literally meaning "western Bengal" in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, and "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution.[39] However, the central government has turned down the proposal maintaining the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three, and it should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighboring Bangladesh).[39][40][41]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Wes-Bengale
Ænglisc: West Bengal
অসমীয়া: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ
تۆرکجه: باتی بنقال
Bân-lâm-gú: West Bengal
беларуская: Заходняя Бенгалія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Заходняя Бэнгалія
भोजपुरी: पश्चिम बंगाल
brezhoneg: Kornôg Bengal
Cebuano: West Bengal
Deutsch: Westbengalen
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވެސްޓު ބެންގާލް
Ελληνικά: Δυτική Βεγγάλη
Fiji Hindi: West Bengal
ગુજરાતી: પશ્ચિમ બંગાળ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: अस्तंत बंगाल
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sî Bengal
한국어: 서벵골주
hrvatski: Zapadni Bengal
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ
Bahasa Indonesia: Benggala Barat
íslenska: Vestur-Bengal
עברית: מערב בנגל
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مغربی بنگال
қазақша: Батыс Бенгал
Kiswahili: West Bengal
لۊری شومالی: بٱنگال ٱفتاونشیݩ
latviešu: Rietumbengāle
Lëtzebuergesch: Westbengalen
македонски: Западен Бенгал
მარგალური: ბჟადალი ბენგალი
Bahasa Melayu: Benggala Barat
Nederlands: West-Bengalen
नेपाल भाषा: पश्चिम बंगाल
Nordfriisk: Waastbengaalen
norsk nynorsk: Vest-Bengal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gʻarbiy bengaliya
پنجابی: لیندا بنگال
português: Bengala Ocidental
Qaraqalpaqsha: Batıs Bengal (shtat)
Runa Simi: Kunti Banla
Simple English: West Bengal
slovenščina: Zahodna Bengalija
српски / srpski: Западни Бенгал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Zapadni Bengal
svenska: Västbengalen
Tagalog: West Bengal
татарча/tatarça: Көнбатыш Бенгалия
Türkçe: Batı Bengal
Türkmençe: West Bengal
українська: Західний Бенгал
Tiếng Việt: Tây Bengal