Weimar Republic (
German: Weimarer Republik
[ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (
listen)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the
German state as it existed between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of
Weimar, where its
constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state remained
Deutsches Reich, unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany.
national assembly was convened in Weimar, where
a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including
hyperinflation, political extremism (with
paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing), as well as contentious relationships with
the victors of the
First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their wartime leaders for the country's defeat and for the humiliating terms of the
Treaty of Versailles. Weimar Germany fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations (by twice restructuring its debt through the
Dawes Plan and the
 Under the
Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the republic, but continued to dispute the Eastern border.
From 1930 onwards
President Hindenburg used
emergency powers to back Chancellors
Franz von Papen and General
Kurt von Schleicher. The
Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment.
 In 1933, Hindenburg appointed
Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the
Nazi Party being part of a coalition government. The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "
éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months the
Reichstag Fire Decree and the
Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power (
Machtergreifung) was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation. These events brought the republic to an end: as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the