Władysław I the Elbow-high

Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław Łokietek.jpg
King Władysław I by Anton Boys, 1579-1587
King of Poland
Tenure1320–1333
Coronation20 January 1320
PredecessorWenceslaus III
SuccessorCasimir III the Great
Born1261
Died2 March 1333 (aged 72)
Kraków, Poland
Burial
SpouseJadwiga of Kalisz
IssueKunigunde, Duchess of Świdnica
Casimir III of Poland
Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary
HouseHouse of Piast
FatherCasimir I of Kuyavia
MotherEuphrosyne of Opole

Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Polish: Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the Piast family of rulers, son of Duke Casimir I of Kujawy, and great-grandson of King Casimir II the Just. He inherited a small portion of his father’s lands, but his dominion grew as some of his brothers died young. He tried for rule of the Duchy of Krakow (the Seniorate Province) in 1289, after the death of his half-brother Leszek II the Black and the withdrawal from contention of his ally Bolesław II of Masovia, but was unsuccessful. After a period in exile during the rule of Wenceslas II, Władysław rebounded to re-assume some duchies after Wenceslas’ death, and then gained Krakow in 1306 after the murder of Wenceslas III. He temporarily took control of part of Greater Poland after the death of his ally Przemysł II, lost it, and then regained it later on. He conquered Gdansk Pomerania, and left it to familial governors. For defense of this territory he turned to the Teutonic Knights, who then demanded an exorbitant sum or the land itself as an alternative. This led to an extended battle with the Knights, which was not resolved after either a papal trial or Władysław’s own death. Perhaps his greatest achievement was gaining papal permission to be crowned King of Poland in 1320, which occurred for the first time at Wawel Cathedral in Krakow. Władysław died in 1333, and his reign was followed by the rule of his more renowned son, Casimir III the Great.

Background

Edict by Władysław the Short in 1325 confirming the Cistercians of Byszewo continue to have the same rights as under German law, and the continued ownership of their Abbey in Byszewo.

In 1138, the Kingdom of Poland, which had been growing in strength under the rule of the Piast dynasty, encountered an obstacle which impeded its development for nearly two hundred years. In the will of King Bolesław III Wrymouth (Bolesław III Krzywousty), Poland was divided into five provinces: Silesia, Mazovia with eastern Kuyavia, Greater Poland, the Sandomierz Region, and the Seniorate Province. The Seniorate Province initially comprised Kraków and western Lesser Poland, eastern Greater Poland including Gniezno and Kalisz, western Kuyavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz (maintained by the Dowager Duchess Salomea of Berg for her lifetime), and with Pomerelia as a fiefdom. To prevent his four sons from quarreling, Bolesław granted one province to each of them, while the Seniorate Province was to be given to the eldest brother on the grounds of primogeniture. This decision was meant to forestall dynastic feuds and prevent the disintegration of the kingdom. However, it proved inadequate, and began nearly two centuries of what it had sought to counteract – constant fighting and disorder. Władysław I succeeded in re-uniting most of these lands back into the kingdom of Poland.

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Władysław yang Pendek
norsk nynorsk: Vladislav I av Polen
Simple English: Wladyslaw I of Poland
slovenščina: Vladislav I. Poljski
српски / srpski: Владислав I Кратки
Türkçe: I. Władysław