Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism.[2] Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Sabancaya volcano, Peru in 2017
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006

Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Historically, volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991 three days before its climactic eruption
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Satellite image of Mount Shasta in California, January 2014

Etymology

The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology.[3] The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Къэбэкъауэ
Alemannisch: Vulkan
አማርኛ: እሳተ ገሞራ
Ænglisc: Fȳrbeorg
العربية: بركان
aragonés: Vulcán
armãneashti: Vulcanu
অসমীয়া: আগ্নেয়গিৰি
asturianu: Volcán
Avañe'ẽ: Yvyrata
azərbaycanca: Vulkan
تۆرکجه: یانارداغ
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoé-soaⁿ
Basa Banyumasan: Gunung berapi
башҡортса: Вулкан
беларуская: Вулкан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вулькан
भोजपुरी: ज्वालामुखी
Bikol Central: Bulkan
Bislama: Volkeno
български: Вулкан
Boarisch: Vuikan
བོད་ཡིག: མེ་རི།
bosanski: Vulkan
brezhoneg: Menez-tan
буряад: Галта уула
català: Volcà
Cebuano: Bulkan
čeština: Sopka
chiShona: Chikwatamabwe
corsu: Volcanu
Cymraeg: Llosgfynydd
dansk: Vulkan
davvisámegiella: Dollavárri
Deutsch: Vulkan
डोटेली: ज्वालामुखी
eesti: Vulkaan
Ελληνικά: Ηφαίστειο
español: Volcán
Esperanto: Vulkano
euskara: Sumendi
فارسی: آتشفشان
føroyskt: Gosfjøll
français: Volcan
Frysk: Fulkaan
furlan: Vulcan
Gaeilge: Bolcán
Gaelg: Volcaan
Gàidhlig: Beinn-theine
galego: Volcán
贛語: 火山
ગુજરાતી: જ્વાળામુખી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fó-sân
한국어: 화산
հայերեն: Հրաբուխ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Հրաբուխ
हिन्दी: ज्वालामुखी
hrvatski: Vulkan
Ido: Volkano
Ilokano: Bulkan
Bahasa Indonesia: Gunung berapi
interlingua: Vulcano
íslenska: Eldstöð
italiano: Vulcano
עברית: הר געש
Kabɩyɛ: Tɛtɛɛ miŋ
kalaallisut: Vulkan
ქართული: ვულკანი
kaszëbsczi: Wùlkan
қазақша: Жанартау
Kinyarwanda: Ikirunga
Kiswahili: Volkeno
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vòlkan
kurdî: Volkan
Кыргызча: Жанар тоо
Latina: Mons ignifer
latviešu: Vulkāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Vulkan
lietuvių: Ugnikalnis
Limburgs: Vulkaan
lumbaart: Vulcan
magyar: Tűzhányó
मैथिली: ज्वालामुखी
македонски: Вулкан
მარგალური: ვულკანი
مصرى: بركان
مازِرونی: تش فشون
Bahasa Melayu: Gunung berapi
Minangkabau: Gunuang api
Mirandés: Bulcon
монгол: Галт уул
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မီးတောင်
Nāhuatl: Tletepētl
Nederlands: Vulkaan
Nedersaksies: Vulkaan
नेपाली: ज्वालामुखी
नेपाल भाषा: गुँजला
日本語: 火山
Napulitano: Vurcano
нохчийн: ТӀаплам
Nordfriisk: Wulkaan
norsk: Vulkan
norsk nynorsk: Vulkan
occitan: Volcan
Oromoo: Volcano
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vulqon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜੁਆਲਾਮੁਖੀ
پنجابی: اگ پہاڑ
Papiamentu: Volkan
Patois: Volkieno
Picard: Volcan
Plattdüütsch: Vulkan
polski: Wulkan
português: Vulcão
Ripoarisch: Vulkahn
română: Vulcan
rumantsch: Vulcan
Runa Simi: Ariq
русиньскый: Вулкан
русский: Вулкан
саха тыла: Вулкан
संस्कृतम्: अग्निपर्वतः
sardu: Vulcanu
Scots: Volcanae
shqip: Vullkani
සිංහල: ගිනි කඳු
Simple English: Volcano
سنڌي: آتش فشان
slovenčina: Sopka
slovenščina: Ognjenik
Soomaaliga: Folkaano
کوردی: گڕکان
српски / srpski: Вулкан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vulkan
suomi: Tulivuori
svenska: Vulkan
Tagalog: Bulkan
தமிழ்: எரிமலை
татарча/tatarça: Вулкан
тоҷикӣ: Оташфишон
Türkçe: Yanardağ
Türkmençe: Wulkan
тыва дыл: Вулкан
українська: Вулкан
اردو: آتش فشاں
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Yanardag
vèneto: Volcan
Tiếng Việt: Núi lửa
Volapük: Volkan
Võro: Tulõmägi
walon: Volcan
West-Vlams: Vulkoan
Winaray: Bulkan
吴语: 火山
ייִדיש: וואולקאן
粵語: 火山
žemaitėška: Ognėkalnis
中文: 火山