Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat ( Hindi: विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS)); About this sound  Listen ) is a Hindu calendar used in Nepal and some Indian States. In Nepal, it has been adopted as the official calendar. Like most Hindu calendars, it is a lunisideral calendar and uses lunar months and sidereal years for timekeeping.

The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar. For example, the year 2073 BS began in 2016 AD and will end in 2017 AD.

The new year begins with the first day of month Baishakh, which usually falls in April–May in the Gregorian calendar. The first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called Bisket Jatra.

The Vikram Samvat is said to have been founded by the legendary Indian King Vikramaditya, variously considered to be a partly historical figure or a purely mythical character. [1] [2] The Rana rulers of Nepal made it their official calendar. In India, the reformulated Saka Calendar is officially used, although in the Hindi version of the Preamble of the Constitution of India, the date of adoption of the constitution, 26 November 1949, is presented in Vikram Samvat (Margsheersh Shukla Saptami Samvat 2006). There have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as India's official calendar. [3]

Divisions of a year

The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal year. Because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months such as added (adhika-masa see Hindu_calendar#Extra months (Adhika Māsa)) or occasionally subtracted (kshaya masa).

Lunar metrics

Months of the Nepali Bikram Samvat:

No. Name Nepali Days Corresponding Gregorian months
1 Baishakh बैशाख 30 / 31(30.950 exactly) mid-April to mid-May
2 Jestha जेष्ठ or जेठ 31 / 32(31.429 exactly) mid-May to mid-June
3 Ashadh आषाढ़ or असार 31 / 32(31.638 exactly) mid-June to mid-July
4 Shrawan श्रावण or साउन / सावन 31 / 32(31.463 exactly) mid-July to mid-August
5 Bhadra भाद्र or भदौ/भादो 31 / 32(31.012 exactly) mid-August to mid-September
6 Ashwin आश्विन or असोज or कुआर/क्वार 30 / 31(30.428 exactly) mid-September to mid-October
7 Kartik कार्तिक 29 / 30(29.879 exactly) mid-October to mid-November
8 Mangsir मार्ग or मंसिर/अगहन 29 / 30(29.475 exactly) mid-November to mid-December
9 Poush पौष or पुष/पूस 29 / 30(29.310 exactly) mid-December to mid-January
10 Magh माघ 29 / 30(29.457 exactly) mid-January to mid-February
11 Falgun फाल्गुन or फागुन 29 / 30(29.841 exactly) mid-February to mid-March
12 Chaitra चैत्र or चैत 30 / 31(30.377 exactly) mid-March to mid-April

The exact length of each month is the time taken by the Sun to move through a full zodiac sign.