Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat (Hindi: विक्रम सम्वत्, Nepali: विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS)); About this sound Listen ) is the historical Hindu calendar of India and Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year (see: Vedic time keeping).[citation needed] It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.[citation needed]

The Vikram Samvat has two alternative systems. It started in 56 BCE in southern (purnimanta) and 57–56 BCE in northern (amanta) systems of Hindu calendar. The Shukla Paksha in both systems coincides, most festivals occur in the Shukla Paksha. The era is named after King Vikramaditya of India.[1][2]

The lunisolar Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar. For example, the year 2074 VS began in 2017 CE and will end in 2018 CE.

The Rana rulers of Nepal made Vikram Samvat the official Hindu calendar in 1901 CE, which started as Samvat 1958.[3] In Nepal, the new year begins with the first day of the month of Baishakh, which usually falls within the months of April–May in the Gregorian calendar. The first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called biska Jatra.As before, from 2007 AD Nepal Sambat is recognized as the national calendar .

In India, the reformulated Saka Calendar is officially used (although not for computing the dates of the traditional festivals), although in the Hindi version of the Preamble of the Constitution of India, the date of adoption of the constitution, 26 November 1949, is presented in Vikram Samvat (Margsheersh Shukla Saptami Samvat 2006). There have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as India's official calendar.[4]

Divisions of a year

The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. Because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months (adhika māsa) are added, or occasionally subtracted (kshaya masa).

Lunar metrics

Months of the Vikram Samvat:

No. Name Nepali Hindi Days Corresponding Gregorian months
1 Baishakh बैशाख बैशाख 30 / 31(30.950 exactly) mid-April to mid-May
2 Jestha जेठ or जेष्ठ जेष्ठ 31 / 32(31.429 exactly) mid-May to mid-June
3 Ashadh असार or अषाढ़ आषाढ़ 31 / 32(31.638 exactly) mid-June to mid-July
4 Shrawan साउन or श्रावण श्रावण or सावन 31 / 32(31.463 exactly) mid-July to mid-August
5 Bhadra भदौ or भाद्र भाद्र or भादो 31 / 32(31.012 exactly) mid-August to mid-September
6 Ashwin असोज or आश्विन आश्विन or कुआर/क्वार 30 / 31(30.428 exactly) mid-September to mid-October
7 Kartik कार्तिक or कातिक्क कार्तिक 29 / 30(29.879 exactly) mid-October to mid-November
8 Mangsir मंसिर or मार्ग मार्ग or मंसिर/अगहन 29 / 30(29.475 exactly) mid-November to mid-December
9 Poush पुष or पौष पौष or पुष/पूस 29 / 30(29.310 exactly) mid-December to mid-January
10 Magh माघ माघ 29 / 30(29.457 exactly) mid-January to mid-February
11 Falgun फागुन or फाल्गुन/फागु फाल्गुन 29 / 30(29.841 exactly) mid-February to mid-March
12 Chaitra चैत or चैत्र चैत्र 30 / 31(30.377 exactly) mid-March to mid-April

The exact length of each month is the time taken by the Sun to move through a full zodiac sign.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Vikram Samvat
العربية: فيكرم سامفات
asturianu: Vikram Samvat
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бікрам Самват
भोजपुरी: विक्रम संवत
brezhoneg: Vikram Samvat
català: Vikram Samvat
Deutsch: Vikram Sambat
Ελληνικά: Βικράμ Σαμβάτ
español: Vikram Samvat
Esperanto: Vikram Samvat
euskara: Bikram Samwat
ગુજરાતી: વિક્રમ સંવત
italiano: Vikram Samvat
Kiswahili: Vikram Samvat
latviešu: Vikram Samvat
lietuvių: Vikram samvat
македонски: Викрам самват
მარგალური: ვიკრამ-სამვატი
Nederlands: Vikram Samvat
नेपाल भाषा: विक्रम सम्बत
norsk nynorsk: Vikram Samvat
polski: Samwatsara
português: Vikram Samvat
Simple English: Vikram Samvat
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bikram Sambat
Basa Sunda: Vikram Samvat
Türkçe: Vikram Samvat
українська: Вікрам Самват