Vietnam

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)
Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc
"Independence – Freedom – Happiness"
Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
(English: "Army March")
Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of Vietnam (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

CapitalHanoi
21°2′N 105°51′E / 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033; 105.850
Largest cityHo Chi Minh City
Official languageNone[n 1]
National languageVietnamese
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Vietnamese
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
• President
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
2 September 1945
21 July 1954
2 July 1976[4]
28 November 2013[n 3]
Area
• Total
331,212 km2 (127,882 sq mi) (65th)
• Water (%)
6.38
Population
• 2016 estimate
94,569,072[6] (15th)
• Density
276.03/km2 (714.9/sq mi) (46th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $770.227 billion[7] (35th)
• Per capita
Increase $8,066[7] (128th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $261.637 billion[7] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,740[7] (129th)
Gini (2014)37.6[8]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.694[9]
medium · 116th
Currencyđồng (₫) (VND)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (Vietnam Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+84
ISO 3166 codeVN
Internet TLD.vn

Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam pronounced [vîət nāːm] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares its maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea.[n 4] Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

Archaeological excavations indicate that Vietnam was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic age. The ancient Vietnamese nation was annexed by China in the 2nd century BC, which subsequently made Vietnam a division of China for over a millennium. The first independent monarchy emerged in the 10th century AD. This paved the way for successive imperial dynasties as the nation expanded geographically southward until the Indochina Peninsula was colonised by the French in the mid-19th century. Modern Vietnam was born upon the Declaration of Independence from France in 1945. Following Vietnamese victory against the French in the First Indochina War, which ended in 1954, the nation was divided into two rival states: communist North and anti-communist South. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War, which saw extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam and ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

After North and South Vietnam were reunified under a unitary socialist government in 1976, the country became economically and politically isolated until 1986, when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into world politics and the global economy. As a result of the successful reforms, Vietnam has enjoyed a high GDP growth rate, consistently ranked among the fastest-growing countries in the world. It nevertheless faces challenges including poverty, corruption and inadequate social welfare. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries. It is a member of such international organisations as the United Nations (UN), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Etymology

The name Việt Nam (Vietnamese pronunciation: [viə̀t naːm]) is a variation of Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越; pinyin: Nányuè; literally "Southern Việt"), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty of the 2nd century BC.[11] The word Việt originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt (Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè), the name of a group of people then living in southern China and Vietnam.[12] The form "Vietnam" (越南) is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình. The name has also been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Hải Phòng that dates to 1558.[13] In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (who later became Emperor Gia Long) established the Nguyễn dynasty. In the second year of his rule, he asked the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty to confer on him the title 'King of Nam Viet/Nanyue' (南越 in Chinese) after seizing power in Annam. The Emperor refused since the name was related to Zhao Tuo's Nanyue, which included the regions of Guangxi and Guangdong in southern China. The Qing Emperor, therefore, decided to call the area "Viet Nam" instead.[n 5][15] Between 1804 and 1813, the name Vietnam was used officially by Emperor Gia Long.[n 5] It was revived in the early 20th century in Phan Bội Châu's History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ).[16] The country was usually called Annam until 1945, when both the imperial government in Huế and the Việt Minh government in Hanoi adopted Việt Nam.[17]

Other Languages
Acèh: Viètnam
Адыгэбзэ: Виетнам
адыгабзэ: Вьетнам
Afrikaans: Viëtnam
Akan: Vietnam
Alemannisch: Vietnam
አማርኛ: ቬት ናም
Ænglisc: Fietnam
العربية: فيتنام
aragonés: Vietnam
armãneashti: Vietnam
arpetan: Viêt Nam
অসমীয়া: ভিয়েটনাম
asturianu: Vietnam
Avañe'ẽ: Vienã
авар: Вьетнам
Aymar aru: Vietnam
azərbaycanca: Vyetnam
تۆرکجه: ویئتنام
Bali: Vietnam
bamanankan: Vietnam
Banjar: Vietnam
Bân-lâm-gú: Oa̍t-lâm
Basa Banyumasan: Vietnam
башҡортса: Вьетнам
беларуская: В’етнам
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Віетнам
भोजपुरी: वियतनाम
Bikol Central: Bietnam
Bislama: Vietnam
български: Виетнам
Boarisch: Vietnam
བོད་ཡིག: ཝི་ཏི་ནམ།
bosanski: Vijetnam
brezhoneg: Viêt Nam
буряад: Вьетнам
català: Vietnam
Чӑвашла: Вьетнам
Cebuano: Viyetnam
čeština: Vietnam
Chamoru: Vietnam
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Vietnam
Chi-Chewa: Vietnam
chiShona: Vietnam
chiTumbuka: Vietnam
Cymraeg: Fietnam
dansk: Vietnam
davvisámegiella: Vietnam
Deitsch: Vietnam
Deutsch: Vietnam
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވިއެޓުނާމު
dolnoserbski: Vietnam
डोटेली: भियतनाम
eesti: Vietnam
Ελληνικά: Βιετνάμ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Vietnam
español: Vietnam
Esperanto: Vjetnamio
estremeñu: Vietnam
euskara: Vietnam
eʋegbe: Vietnam
فارسی: ویتنام
Fiji Hindi: Vietnam
føroyskt: Vjetnam
français: Viêt Nam
Frysk: Fjetnam
Fulfulde: Wiyetnam
furlan: Vietnam
Gaeilge: Vítneam
Gaelg: Yn Vietnam
Gagauz: Vyetnam
Gàidhlig: Bhiet-Nam
galego: Vietnam
ГӀалгӀай: Вьетнам
贛語: 越南
Gĩkũyũ: Vietnam
ગુજરાતી: વિયેતનામ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: व्हिएतनाम
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ye̍t-nàm
한국어: 베트남
Hausa: Vietnam
Hawaiʻi: Wiekanama
հայերեն: Վիետնամ
हिन्दी: वियतनाम
hornjoserbsce: Vietnam
hrvatski: Vijetnam
Ido: Vietnam
Ilokano: Bietnam
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভিয়েতনাম
Bahasa Indonesia: Vietnam
interlingua: Vietnam
Interlingue: Viet-Nam
Iñupiak: Vietnam
Ирон: Вьетнам
isiZulu: IViyetnami
íslenska: Víetnam
italiano: Vietnam
עברית: וייטנאם
Jawa: Viètnam
Kabɩyɛ: Fɩyɛtɩnaam
kalaallisut: Vietnam
Kapampangan: Vietnam
къарачай-малкъар: Вьетнам
ქართული: ვიეტნამი
kaszëbsczi: Wietnam
қазақша: Вьетнам
kernowek: Vietnam
Kinyarwanda: Viyetinamu
Kirundi: Vietnam
Kiswahili: Vietnam
коми: Вьетнам
Kongo: Vietnam
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vyetnam
kurdî: Viyetnam
Кыргызча: Вьетнам
Ladino: Vietnam
لۊری شومالی: ڤیاٛتنام
latgaļu: Vjetnams
Latina: Vietnamia
latviešu: Vjetnama
Lëtzebuergesch: Vietnam
лезги: Вьетнам
lietuvių: Vietnamas
Ligure: Vietnam
Limburgs: Vietnam
lingála: Vietnami
Lingua Franca Nova: Vietnam
Livvinkarjala: Vietnamu
la .lojban.: vietnam
lumbaart: Vietnam
magyar: Vietnám
मैथिली: भियतनाम
македонски: Виетнам
Malagasy: Vietnam
മലയാളം: വിയറ്റ്നാം
Malti: Vjetnam
Māori: Whitināmu
მარგალური: ვიეტნამი
مصرى: فييتنام
مازِرونی: ویتنام
Bahasa Melayu: Vietnam
Minangkabau: Vietnam
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Uŏk-nàng
Mirandés: Bietname
мокшень: Виетнам
монгол: Вьетнам
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဗီယက်နမ်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Bitinam
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Vietnam
Nederlands: Vietnam
Nedersaksies: Vietnam
नेपाली: भियतनाम
नेपाल भाषा: भियतनाम
日本語: ベトナム
Napulitano: Vietnam
нохчийн: Вьетнам
Nordfriisk: Vietnam
Norfuk / Pitkern: Wiyetnaam
norsk: Vietnam
norsk nynorsk: Vietnam
Nouormand: Vyitename
Novial: Vietnam
occitan: Vietnam
олык марий: Вьетнам
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭିଏତନାମ
Oromoo: Veetinaam
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vyetnam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵੀਅਤਨਾਮ
Pälzisch: Vietnam
Pangasinan: Vietnam
پنجابی: ویتنام
Papiamentu: Vietnam
Patois: Vietnam
ភាសាខ្មែរ: វៀតណាម
Picard: Vietnam
Piemontèis: Vietnam
Tok Pisin: Vietnam
Plattdüütsch: Vietnam
polski: Wietnam
Ποντιακά: Βιετνάμ
português: Vietnã
Qaraqalpaqsha: Vietnam
qırımtatarca: Vyetnam
reo tahiti: Vietu Namu
Ripoarisch: Vietnam
română: Vietnam
rumantsch: Vietnam
Runa Simi: Witnam
русиньскый: Вєтнам
русский: Вьетнам
саха тыла: Вьетнам
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱛᱱᱟᱢ
Gagana Samoa: Viatename
संस्कृतम्: चम्पादेशः
sardu: Vietnam
Scots: Vietnam
Seeltersk: Vietnam
Sesotho: Vietnam
Sesotho sa Leboa: Vietnam
shqip: Vietnami
sicilianu: Vietnam
Simple English: Vietnam
سنڌي: ويٽنام
SiSwati: IViyethina
slovenčina: Vietnam
slovenščina: Vietnam
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Виѥтнамъ
ślůnski: Wjetnam
Soomaaliga: Fiyetnam
کوردی: ڤیێتنام
Sranantongo: Vi-etnam
српски / srpski: Вијетнам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vijetnam
Sunda: Viétnam
suomi: Vietnam
svenska: Vietnam
Tagalog: Vietnam
Taqbaylit: Vietnam
tarandíne: Vietnam
татарча/tatarça: Вьетнам
తెలుగు: వియత్నాం
tetun: Vietname
тоҷикӣ: Вйетнам
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏫᎡᏘᎾᎻ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Vietnam
Tshivenda: Viëtnam
Türkçe: Vietnam
Türkmençe: Wýetnam
Twi: Wietnam
удмурт: Вьетнам
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Vietnam
українська: В'єтнам
اردو: ویت نام
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ۋيېتنام
Vahcuengh: Yiednamz
vèneto: Vietnam
vepsän kel’: Vjetnam
Tiếng Việt: Việt Nam
Volapük: Vietnamän
Võro: Vietnam
walon: Vietnam
文言: 越南
West-Vlams: Vietnam
Winaray: Vietnam
Wolof: Wiyetnaam
吴语: 越南
Xitsonga: Vietnam
ייִדיש: וויעטנאם
Yorùbá: Fiẹtnám
粵語: 越南
Zazaki: Vietnam
Zeêuws: Vietnam
žemaitėška: Vietnams
中文: 越南