A modern recreation of a controller for Tennis for Two
Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a "
Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by
Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.
 Inspired by
radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.
 Other early examples include: The
Nimrod computer at the 1951
Festival of Britain;
tic-tac-toe Computer game by
Alexander S. Douglas for the
EDSAC in 1952;
Tennis for Two, an electronic interactive game engineered by
William Higinbotham in 1958;
Spacewar!, written by
MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen's on a DEC
PDP-1 computer in 1961; and the hit
Pong, a 1972 game by
Atari. Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of
 OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe
 Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court,
 and Spacewar! used the
DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two
spaceships battle each other.
Computer Space, created by
Nolan Bushnell and
Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of
 The game was featured in the 1973
science fiction film
Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the
Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by
Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television.
 These were followed by two versions of
arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity.
 The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the
video game industry.
A flood of Pong clones eventually led to the
video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of
 marking the beginning of the
golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market.
 The game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts, restaurants, and convenience stores.
 The game also became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing
video gaming as a rapidly growing mainstream hobby.
 Space Invaders was soon licensed for the
Atari VCS (later known as Atari 2600), becoming the first "
killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales.
 This helped Atari recover from their earlier losses,
 and in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the
second generation of consoles, up until the
North American video game crash of 1983.
 The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the
Nintendo Entertainment System,
 which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the
third generation of consoles.