Venezuela

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

República Bolivariana de Venezuela  (Spanish)
Motto: Dios y Federación
(English: "God and Federation")
Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo
(English: "Glory to the Brave People")
Land controlled by Venezuela shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green.
Land controlled by Venezuela shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green.
Capital
and largest city
Caracas
10°30′N 66°55′W / 10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500; -66.917
Official languagesSpanish[b]
Recognized regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2011)[1]
Religion
(2012)[2]
71% Catholic
17% Protestant
8% Irreligious
3% Other religion
1% No answer
Demonym(s)Venezuelan
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Delcy Rodríguez (constitutional position disputed)
LegislatureNational Assembly
Constituent Assembly (disputed)
Independence
• from Spain
5 July 1811
• from Gran Colombia
13 January 1830
• Recognized
29 March 1845
15 November 1945
15 December 1999
Area
• Total
916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi) (32nd)
• Water (%)
3.2%[d]
Population
• 2016 estimate
Increase 31,568,179 [3] (government)
28,067,000 (IMF)[4] (44th)
• Density
33.74/km2 (87.4/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
n/a[5]
• Per capita
n/a[5]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $76.458 billion[5] (51st)
• Per capita
Decrease $2,724[5] (93rd)
Gini (2013)Negative increase 44.8[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.761[7]
high · 78th
Currency (VES)
Time zoneUTC−4 (VET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+58
ISO 3166 codeVE
Internet TLD.ve
  1. ^ The "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" has been the full official title since the adoption of the Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar.
  2. ^ The Constitution also recognizes all indigenous languages spoken in the country.
  3. ^ Some important subgroups include those of Spanish, Italian, Amerindian, African, Portuguese, Arab and German descent.
  4. ^ Area totals include only Venezuelan-administered territory.
  5. ^ On 20 August 2018, a new bolivar was introduced, the Bolívar soberano (ISO 4217 code VES) worth 100,000 VEF.

Venezuela (ə/ (About this soundlisten); American Spanish: [beneˈswela] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela),[8] is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi). The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba, an area of 159,542 km2 (61,600 sq mi). For its maritime areas, Venezuela exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 (27,527 sq mi) of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 (8,581 sq mi) in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 (182,050 sq mi) of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 (38,567 sq mi) of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.[9] There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District (covering Caracas), and federal dependencies (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela also claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre (61,583 sq mi) tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación (the "zone under dispute").[10] Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;[11][12] the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital (Caracas) which is also the largest city in Venezuela.

The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia. It gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos (military strongmen) until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written. This new constitution officially changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela).

Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously, the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995[13] as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak.[14] The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s.[15] The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez then established populist social welfare policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily[16] reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime.[20] In 2013, Hugo Chávez died, shortly after being elected to a fourth term, and was succeeded by Nicolás Maduro, elected by a narrow majority in a widely disputed election. Maduro continued the populist policies of Chávez, but with disastrous results.[21] The nation's economy collapsed because of their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy[22]—and are widely blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy. The destabilized economy led to a crisis in Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression,[23] shortages of basic goods[24] and drastic increases in unemployment,[25] poverty,[26] disease, child mortality, malnutrition and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.[27] By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies.[28][29] In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year and 10,000,000% in 2019.[30][31]Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI.

Etymology

According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast. The stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice".[32] The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela.[33]

Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word.[34]

Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Венесуелэ
адыгабзэ: Венесуэлэ
Afrikaans: Venezuela
Alemannisch: Venezuela
አማርኛ: ቬኔዝዌላ
Ænglisc: Feneswela
العربية: فنزويلا
aragonés: Venezuela
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܢܙܘܝܠܐ
arpetan: Venezuèla
asturianu: Venezuela
Avañe'ẽ: Venesuéla
Aymar aru: Winïxwila
azərbaycanca: Venesuela
تۆرکجه: ونزوئلا
bamanankan: Venezuela
Bân-lâm-gú: Venezuela
башҡортса: Венесуэла
беларуская: Венесуэла
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вэнэсуэла
भोजपुरी: वेनेजुएला
Bikol Central: Benesuela
Bislama: Venezuela
български: Венецуела
Boarisch: Venezuela
bosanski: Venecuela
brezhoneg: Venezuela
буряад: Венесуэлэ
català: Veneçuela
Чӑвашла: Венесуэла
Cebuano: Venezuela
čeština: Venezuela
Chamoru: Venezuela
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Venezuela
chiShona: Venezuela
corsu: Venezuela
Cymraeg: Feneswela
dansk: Venezuela
davvisámegiella: Venezuela
Deutsch: Venezuela
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވެނެޒުއޭލާ
dolnoserbski: Venezuela
डोटेली: भेनेजुयला
eesti: Venezuela
Ελληνικά: Βενεζουέλα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Venesüela
español: Venezuela
Esperanto: Venezuelo
estremeñu: Veneçuela
euskara: Venezuela
eʋegbe: Venezuela
فارسی: ونزوئلا
Fiji Hindi: Venezuela
føroyskt: Venesuela
français: Venezuela
Frysk: Fenezuëla
furlan: Venezuela
Gaeilge: Veiniséala
Gagauz: Venesuela
Gàidhlig: A' Bheiniseala
galego: Venezuela
ГӀалгӀай: Венесуэла
ગુજરાતી: વેનેઝુએલા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: व्हेनेझुएला
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Venezuela
한국어: 베네수엘라
Hawaiʻi: Wenekola
հայերեն: Վենեսուելա
हिन्दी: वेनेज़ुएला
hornjoserbsce: Venezuela
hrvatski: Venezuela
Igbo: Venezuela
Ilokano: Venezuela
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভেনেজুয়েলা
Bahasa Indonesia: Venezuela
interlingua: Venezuela
Interlingue: Venezuela
isiZulu: Venezuela
íslenska: Venesúela
italiano: Venezuela
עברית: ונצואלה
Kabɩyɛ: Fenezuyeelaa
kalaallisut: Venezuela
Kapampangan: Beneswela
къарачай-малкъар: Венесуэла
ქართული: ვენესუელა
қазақша: Венесуэла
kernowek: Veneswela
Kinyarwanda: Venezuwela
Kirundi: Venezuela
Kiswahili: Venezuela
Kongo: Beneswela
Kreyòl ayisyen: Venezwela
kurdî: Venezuela
Кыргызча: Венесуэла
кырык мары: Венесуэла
Ladino: Venezuela
لۊری شومالی: ڤئنئزائوٙلا
latgaļu: Venecuela
Latina: Venetiola
latviešu: Venecuēla
Lëtzebuergesch: Venezuela
лезги: Венесуэла
lietuvių: Venesuela
Ligure: Venezuela
Limburgs: Venezuela
lingála: Venezwela
Lingua Franca Nova: Venezuela
Livvinkarjala: Venesuela
la .lojban.: benesuel
lumbaart: Venezuela
magyar: Venezuela
मैथिली: भेनेजुएला
македонски: Венецуела
Malagasy: Venezoela
മലയാളം: വെനസ്വേല
Malti: Veneżwela
მარგალური: ვენესუელა
مازِرونی: ونزوئلا
Bahasa Melayu: Venezuela
Minangkabau: Venezuela
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Venezuela
мокшень: Венезуела
монгол: Венесуэл
Nāhuatl: Venezuela
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Venezuela
Nederlands: Venezuela
नेपाली: भेनेजुएला
नेपाल भाषा: भेनेजुएला
日本語: ベネズエラ
Napulitano: Venezuela
нохчийн: Венесуэла
Nordfriisk: Venezuela
Norfuk / Pitkern: Wenezuela
norsk: Venezuela
norsk nynorsk: Venezuela
Nouormand: Vénézuéla
Novial: Venezuela
occitan: Veneçuèla
олык марий: Венесуэла
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Venesuela
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵੈਨੇਜ਼ੁਐਲਾ
Pangasinan: Venezuela
پنجابی: وینزویلا
Papiamentu: Venezuela
Patois: Venizuela
Piemontèis: Venessuela
Tok Pisin: Venesuwela
Plattdüütsch: Venezuela
polski: Wenezuela
português: Venezuela
Qaraqalpaqsha: Venesuela
qırımtatarca: Venesuela
română: Venezuela
romani čhib: Venezuela
rumantsch: Venezuela
Runa Simi: Winisuyla
русиньскый: Венеcуела
русский: Венесуэла
саха тыла: Венесуэла
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱷᱮᱱᱮᱡᱩᱭᱮᱞᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Venesuela
संस्कृतम्: वेनेजुयेला
sardu: Venezuela
Scots: Venezuela
Seeltersk: Venezuela
shqip: Venezuela
sicilianu: Venezzuela
Simple English: Venezuela
slovenčina: Venezuela
slovenščina: Venezuela
ślůnski: Wynezuela
Soomaaliga: Fanansuwela
کوردی: ڤێنیزوێلا
Sranantongo: Venswelikondre
српски / srpski: Венецуела
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Venezuela
suomi: Venezuela
svenska: Venezuela
Tagalog: Venezuela
Taqbaylit: Venezuela
tarandíne: Venezuela
татарча/tatarça: Венесуэла
తెలుగు: వెనుజులా
tetun: Venezuela
ትግርኛ: ቨኒዙአላ
тоҷикӣ: Венесуэла
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏪᏁᏑᏪᎳ
Türkçe: Venezuela
Türkmençe: Wenesuela
удмурт: Венесуэла
українська: Венесуела
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ۋېنېسۇئېلا
Vahcuengh: Venezuela
vèneto: Venesueła
vepsän kel’: Venesuel
Tiếng Việt: Venezuela
Volapük: Venesolän
Võro: Venezuela
walon: Venezwela
文言: 委內瑞拉
Winaray: Venezuela
Wolof: Benesuwela
吴语: 委内瑞拉
ייִדיש: ווענעזועלע
Yorùbá: Fenesuela
粵語: 委內瑞拉
Zazaki: Venezuela
Zeêuws: Venezuela
žemaitėška: Venesoela
中文: 委內瑞拉