Uruguay

Oriental Republic of the Uruguay
República Oriental del Uruguay  (Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad o Muerte" (Spanish)
(English: "Freedom or Death")
Anthem: "Himno Nacional de Uruguay"
(English: "National Anthem of Uruguay")
Location of  Uruguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)
Location of  Uruguay  (dark green)

in South America  (grey)

Location of Uruguay
Capital
and largest city
Montevideo
34°53′S 56°10′W / 34°53′S 56°10′W / -34.883; -56.167
Official languagesSpanish (de facto)[fn 1]
National languageSpanish
Ethnic groups (2016[1])
Religion (2017)[2]
DemonymOriental, Uruguayan
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Tabaré Vázquez
Lucía Topolansky
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
Senate
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from the Empire of Brazil
• Declared
25 August 1825
27 August 1828
18 July 1830
18 December 1945
Area
• Total
176,215 km2 (68,037 sq mi) (89th)
• Water (%)
1.5
Population
• 2016 estimate
3,444,006[3] (99th)
• 2011 census
3,480,314[4]
• Density
19.8/km2 (51.3/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$81.573 billion[5] (48st)
• Per capita
$23,267[5] (60th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$60.933 billion[5] (28th)
• Per capita
$17,380[5] (43rd)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 39.7[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.804[7]
very high · 48th
CurrencyUruguayan peso (UYU)
Time zoneUTC−3 (UYT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+598
ISO 3166 codeUY
Internet TLD.uy

Uruguay (/ (About this soundlisten);[8] Spanish pronunciation: [uɾuˈɣwai]), officially the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay (Spanish: República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata (River of Silver) to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people,[3] of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America,[9] after Suriname.

Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4,000 years[10] before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680; Uruguay was colonized by Europeans relatively late compared with neighboring countries. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain, Portugal, and later Argentina and Brazil. It remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.

A series of economic crisis put an end to a democratic period that begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists, socialists, and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military; the military relinquished power to a civilian government in 1985. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government.

Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, peace, low perception of corruption,[11] e-government,[12] and is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity.[11] On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country.[11] It tops the rank of absence of terrorism, a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI.[11] Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth,[13] innovation and infrastructure.[11] It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN.[12] Uruguay was also ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014.[12]Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, rice, soybeans, frozen beef, malt and milk.[11] Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy, mostly hydroelectric facilities and wind parks.[14] Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM.

Uruguay is regarded as one of the most socially advanced, outstanding regionally,[15] and ranking highly on global measures of personal rights, tolerance, and inclusion issues.[16] The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013,[17] acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, sale and consumption of cannabis.

Etymology

The name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river" ("the river of the urú", via Charruan, urú being a common noun of any wild fowl).[18][19] The name could also refer to a river snail called uruguá (Pomella megastoma) that was plentiful in the water.[20]

In Spanish colonial times, and for some time thereafter, Uruguay and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental [del Uruguay] ("East Bank [of the Uruguay River]"), then for a few years the "Eastern Province". Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which literally means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay [River]". However, it is commonly translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay"[1][21] or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay".[22]

Other Languages
Acèh: Uruguay
Afrikaans: Uruguay
Alemannisch: Uruguay
አማርኛ: ኡሩጓይ
Ænglisc: Uruquaria
العربية: الأوروغواي
aragonés: Uruguai
arpetan: Urugoayi
asturianu: Uruguái
Avañe'ẽ: Uruguái
Aymar aru: Uruwayi
azərbaycanca: Uruqvay
تۆرکجه: اوروقوئه
বাংলা: উরুগুয়ে
Bân-lâm-gú: Uruguay
башҡортса: Уругвай
беларуская: Уругвай
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Уругвай
भोजपुरी: उरुग्वे
Bikol Central: Uruguay
Bislama: Uruguay
български: Уругвай
Boarisch: Uruguay
bosanski: Urugvaj
brezhoneg: Uruguay
буряад: Уругвай
català: Uruguai
Чӑвашла: Уругвай
Cebuano: Uruguay
čeština: Uruguay
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Uruguay
chiShona: Uruguay
corsu: Uruguai
Cymraeg: Wrwgwái
dansk: Uruguay
davvisámegiella: Uruguay
Deitsch: Uruguay
Deutsch: Uruguay
ދިވެހިބަސް: އުރުގުއޭ
dolnoserbski: Uruguay
डोटेली: उरुग्वे
eesti: Uruguay
Ελληνικά: Ουρουγουάη
español: Uruguay
Esperanto: Urugvajo
estremeñu: Uruguai
euskara: Uruguai
eʋegbe: Uruguay
فارسی: اروگوئه
Fiji Hindi: Uruguay
føroyskt: Uruguai
français: Uruguay
Frysk: Oerûguay
Gaeilge: Uragua
Gagauz: Urugvay
Gàidhlig: Uruguaidh
galego: Uruguai
ગુજરાતી: ઉરુગ્વે
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: उरुग्वे
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Uruguay
한국어: 우루과이
հայերեն: Ուրուգվայ
हिन्दी: उरुग्वे
hornjoserbsce: Uruguay
hrvatski: Urugvaj
Ido: Uruguay
Igbo: Uruguay
Ilokano: Uruguay
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: উরুগুয়ে
Bahasa Indonesia: Uruguay
interlingua: Uruguay
Interlingue: Uruguay
Ирон: Уругвай
íslenska: Úrúgvæ
italiano: Uruguay
עברית: אורוגוואי
Basa Jawa: Uruguay
Kabɩyɛ: Uruguwe
kalaallisut: Uruguay
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಉರುಗ್ವೆ
Kapampangan: Uruguay
ქართული: ურუგვაი
қазақша: Уругвай
kernowek: Urugway
Kinyarwanda: Irigwe
Kirundi: Uruguay
Kiswahili: Uruguay
Kongo: Urugway
Kreyòl ayisyen: Irigwe
kurdî: Ûrûguay
Кыргызча: Уругвай
кырык мары: Уругвай
Ladino: Uruguay
لۊری شومالی: اوروگۊاٛ
latgaļu: Urugvajs
Latina: Uraquaria
latviešu: Urugvaja
Lëtzebuergesch: Uruguay
лезги: Уругвай
lietuvių: Urugvajus
Ligure: Uruguay
Limburgs: Uruguay
lingála: Ulugwai
Lingua Franca Nova: Uruguai
Livvinkarjala: Urugvai
la .lojban.: uruguais
lumbaart: Uruguay
magyar: Uruguay
मैथिली: उरुग्वे
македонски: Уругвај
Malagasy: Uruguay
മലയാളം: ഉറുഗ്വേ
Malti: Urugwaj
मराठी: उरुग्वे
მარგალური: ურუგვაი
مازِرونی: اروگوئه
Bahasa Melayu: Uruguay
Baso Minangkabau: Uruguay
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Uruguay
монгол: Уругвай
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဥရုဂွေးနိုင်ငံ
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Uruguay
Nederlands: Uruguay
नेपाली: उरुग्वे
नेपाल भाषा: उरुग्वे
日本語: ウルグアイ
Napulitano: Uruguay
нохчийн: Уругвай
Nordfriisk: Uruguay
Norfuk / Pitkern: Uruguay
norsk: Uruguay
norsk nynorsk: Uruguay
Novial: Uruguay
occitan: Uruguai
олык марий: Уругвай
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଉରୁଗୁଏ
Oromoo: Uraaguwaay
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Urugvay
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਉਰੂਗੁਏ
Pangasinan: Uruguay
پنجابی: یوراگوۓ
Papiamentu: Uruguai
Patois: Yurugwai
Piemontèis: Uruguay
Tok Pisin: Yuruguwai
Plattdüütsch: Uruguay
polski: Urugwaj
português: Uruguai
Qaraqalpaqsha: Urugvay
qırımtatarca: Urugvay
română: Uruguay
Romani: Uruguay
rumantsch: Uruguay
Runa Simi: Uruwayi
русский: Уругвай
саха тыла: Уругуай
Gagana Samoa: Iurukuei
संस्कृतम्: उरुग्वाय
sardu: Uruguay
Scots: Uruguay
Seeltersk: Uruguay
shqip: Uruguaji
sicilianu: Uruguai
Simple English: Uruguay
slovenčina: Uruguaj
slovenščina: Urugvaj
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Оуроугваи
ślůnski: Urugwaj
Soomaaliga: Uruguay
کوردی: ئوروگوای
српски / srpski: Уругвај
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Urugvaj
Basa Sunda: Uruguay
suomi: Uruguay
svenska: Uruguay
Tagalog: Uruguay
தமிழ்: உருகுவை
Taqbaylit: Urugway
татарча/tatarça: Уругвай
తెలుగు: ఉరుగ్వే
tetun: Uruguai
тоҷикӣ: Уругуай
Türkçe: Uruguay
Türkmençe: Urugwaý
українська: Уругвай
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئۇرۇگۋاي
Vahcuengh: Uruguay
vèneto: Uruguay
vepsän kel’: Urugvai
Tiếng Việt: Uruguay
Volapük: Luruguyän
Võro: Uruguay
文言: 烏拉圭
West-Vlams: Uruguay
Winaray: Uruguay
Wolof: Uruguwaay
吴语: 乌拉圭
ייִדיש: אורוגוויי
Yorùbá: Uruguay
粵語: 烏拉圭
Zazaki: Uruguay
Zeêuws: Uruguay
žemaitėška: Urugvajos
中文: 乌拉圭