United States Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands of the United States

Motto: "United in Pride and Hope"

Territorial anthem: "Virgin Islands March"
Location of United States Virgin Islands (circled in red)
Location of United States Virgin Islands (circled in red)
StatusUnincorporated and organized territory
Capital
and largest city
Charlotte Amalie
18°21′N 64°56′W / 18°21′N 64°56′W / 18.350; -64.933
Official languagesEnglish
Common languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Virgin Islander
Sovereign stateUnited States
GovernmentTerritorial presidential constitutional republic
• President
Donald Trump (R)
Mike Pence (R)
• Governor
Albert Bryan (D)
Tregenza Roach (D)
• Delegate
Stacey Plaskett (D)
LegislatureLegislature of the Virgin Islands
Unincorporated and organized territory of the United States
March 31, 1917
February 25, 1927
July 22, 1954
Area
• Total
346.36 km2 (133.73 sq mi) (unranked)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2017 estimate
104,901
• 2010 census
106,405[1]
• Density
768/sq mi (296.5/km2) (n/a)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$4.580 billion (n/a)
• Per capita
$36,350[2] (n/a)
HDI (2008)Increase 0.894
very high · 59th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 (AST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 (none)
Date formatMM/DD/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1-340
ISO 3166 codeVI
Internet TLD

The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the US Virgin Islands or American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean and an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles.

The U.S. Virgin Islands consists of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas, and many other surrounding minor islands. The total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles (346.36 km2).[3] The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas.

Previously known as the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916. They are classified by the United Nations as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, and are currently an organized, unincorporated United States territory. The U.S. Virgin Islands are organized under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions. The last and only proposed Constitution, adopted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U.S. Virgin Islands in 2009, was rejected by the U.S. Congress in 2010, which urged the convention to reconvene to address the concerns Congress and the Obama Administration had with the proposed document. The Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U.S. Virgin Islands met in October 2012 to address these concerns, but was not able to produce a revised Constitution before its October 31 deadline.

In 2010 the population was 106,405,[4] and mostly Afro-Caribbean. Tourism and related categories are the primary economic activity, employing a high percentage of the civilian non-farm labor force that totaled 42,752 persons in 2016 (the total non-farm labor force was 48,278 persons). Private sector jobs made up 71 percent of the total workforce. The average private sector salary was $34,088 and the average public sector salary was $52,572.[5]

In a May 2016 report, some 11,000 people were categorized as being involved in some aspect of agriculture in the first half of 2016 but this category makes up a small part of the total economy. (The islands have a significant rum-manufacturing sector.) At that time, there were approximately 607 manufacturing jobs and 1,487 natural resource and construction jobs. The single largest employer was the government.[6] In mid-February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a very high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million.[7][8] Then early August 2017, the U.S. Virgin Islands government was rejected from the bond market.

History

The U.S. Virgin Islands were originally inhabited by the Ciboney, Carib, and Arawaks. The islands were discovered by the Spanish and named by Christopher Columbus on his second voyage in 1493 for Saint Ursula and her virgin followers. Over the next two centuries, the islands were held by several European powers, including Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands, France, and Denmark–Norway.

The Danish West India Company settled on St. Thomas in 1672, settled on St. John in 1694, and purchased St. Croix from France in 1733.[9] The islands became royal Danish colonies in 1754, named the Danish West Indian Islands (Danish: De dansk-vestindiske øer). Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Other plantation crops included cotton and indigo dye. [10][better source needed]

The Danish West India and Guinea Company are also credited with naming the island St. John (Danish: Sankt Jan). The Danish crown took full control of St. John in 1754 along with St. Thomas and St. Croix. Sugarcane plantations such as the famous Annaberg Sugar Plantation were established in great numbers on St. John because of the intense heat and fertile terrain that provided ideal growing conditions. The establishment of sugarcane plantations also led to the buying of more slaves from Africa.

In 1733, St. John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World when Akwamu slaves from the Gold Coast took over the island for six months. The Danish were able to defeat the enslaved Africans with help from the French in Martinique. Instead of allowing themselves to be recaptured, more than a dozen of the ringleaders shot themselves before the French forces could capture them and call them to account for their activities during the period of rebel control. It is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers by a ratio of 5:1.

After a slavery rebellion in Saint Croix, slavery was abolished by governor Peter von Scholten on July 3, 1848, now celebrated as Emancipation Day. Although some plantation owners refused to accept the abolition, some 5,000 Black people were freed while another 17,000 remained enslaved. Over the following years, strict labor laws were implemented several times, leading to the 1878 St. Croix labor riot.

Planters began to abandon their estates, causing a significant drop in population and the overall economy. Additionally, the 1867 hurricane and earthquake and tsunami had further diminished the economy. For the remainder of the period of Danish rule the islands were not economically viable and significant transfers were made from the Danish state budgets to the authorities in the islands.

In 1867 a treaty to sell St. Thomas and St. John to the United States was agreed, but the sale was never effected.[11] A number of reforms aimed at reviving the islands' economy were attempted, but none had great success. A second draft treaty to sell the islands to the United States was negotiated in 1902 but was defeated in the upper house of the Danish parliament in a tie vote (because the opposition carried a 97-year-old life member into the chamber).[11]

The onset of World War I brought the reforms to a close and again left the islands isolated and exposed. During the submarine warfare phases of the war, the United States, fearing that the islands might be seized by Germany as a submarine base, again approached Denmark about buying them. After a few months of negotiations, a selling price of $25 million in United States gold coin was agreed, equivalent to $575.61 million in 2018 dollars. At the same time the economics of continued possession weighed heavily on the minds of Danish decision makers, and a consensus in favor of selling emerged in the Danish parliament.

The Treaty of the Danish West Indies was signed in August 1916,[12] with a referendum on the sale held in Denmark in December 1916 in which voters voted to confirm the decision. The deal was finalized on January 17, 1917, when the United States and Denmark exchanged their respective treaty ratifications. The United States took possession of the islands on March 31, 1917 and the territory was renamed the Virgin Islands of the United States. Every year Transfer Day is recognized as a holiday, to commemorate the acquisition of the islands by the United States.[13]

Water Island, a small island to the south of St. Thomas, was initially administered by the US federal government and did not become a part of the United States Virgin Islands territory until 1996, when 50 acres (20 ha) of land was transferred to the territorial government. The remaining 200 acres (81 ha) of the island were purchased from the United States Department of the Interior in May 2005 for $10, a transaction that marked the official change in jurisdiction.[14]

US citizenship was granted to many inhabitants of the islands in 1927 and 1932. The US dollar was adopted in the territory in 1934[15] and from 1935 to 1939 the islands were a part of the United States customs area.[16] The 1936 Organic Act and the 1954 Revised Organic Act established the local government. In 1970 Virgin Islanders elected their first governor, Melvin H. Evans.

In 1966 Hess Oil began construction on an oil refinery. Until February 2012, the Hovensa plant located on St. Croix was one of the world's largest petroleum refineries and contributed about 20% of the territory's GDP. The facility stopped exporting petroleum products in 2014. In the final year of full refinery operations, the value of exported petroleum products was $12.7 billion (2011 fiscal year).[17] After being shut down, it has operated as no more than an oil storage facility; the closure had provoked a local economic crisis.[18][19]

The aftermath of Hurricane Marilyn on the island of St. Thomas, 1995

Hurricane Hugo struck the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1989, causing catastrophic physical and economic damage, particularly on the island of St. Croix. The territory was again struck by Hurricane Marilyn in 1995, killing eight people and causing more than $2 billion in damage. The islands were again struck by Hurricanes Bertha, Georges, Lenny, and Omar in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2008, respectively, but damage was not as severe in those storms.

In September 2017, Category 5 Hurricane Irma caused catastrophic damage, particularly to St. John and St. Thomas. Just two weeks later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria's weaker outer eyewall crossed St. Croix. Sustained winds at the Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge on St. Croix reached 99 to 104 mph (159 to 167 km/h) and gusted to 137 mph (220 km/h).[20] Weather stations on St. Croix recorded 5 and 10 inches of rain from the hurricane, and estimates for St. John and St. Thomas were somewhat less.[21]

The hurricane killed two people, both in their homes: one person drowned and another was trapped by a mudslide.[22] A third person had a fatal heart attack during the hurricane.[23] The hurricane caused extensive and severe damage to St. Croix. After both hurricanes, the office of V.I. congresswoman Stacey Plaskett stated that 90% of buildings in the Virgin Islands were damaged or destroyed and 13,000 of those buildings had lost their roofs.[24] The Luis Hospital suffered roof damage and flooding, but remained operational.[25]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: ABŞ Vircin adaları
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Амэрыканскія Віргінскія астравы
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mî-koet liâng Virgin Khiùn-tó
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তিলপারাষ্ট্রর ভার্জিন দ্বীপমালা
latviešu: ASV Virdžīnas
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Američki Djevičanski otoci